trireme kept for sacred embassies [see THEORI
]. Of these ships it seems that there were at Athens in
early historic times three,--the Delian (Δηλία
), the Salaminian (Σαλαμινία
), and the Paralus (Πάραλος
). The first was so called because it was used (probably
exclusively) for Delian theoriae; the second because it was manned
originally by natives of Salamis (σαλαμίνιοι
); and the third because it was manned by sailors from
the Paralia (πάραλοι
). Boeckh indeed says that there were
only two, and makes Delia
another name for the
but we should rather follow
Schömann (Antiq. of Greece,
p. 441, E. T.) in
separating these ships: the language of Plato (Phaed.
and of Plutarch (Plut. Thes. 3
) seems to us
quite impossible to reconcile with the view that the ancient ship used for
the Delian embassy was the Salaminia. Each writer (and Plato with especial
distinctness) speaks of the ship as though it had connexion with the Delian
theoria only. It is clear from their account that the Delia was a very old
ship, traditionally dating from Theseus, and constantly renewed with fresh
timbers, so that, according to Plutarch, its case was used to illustrate
things which are the same and yet not the same: the state of the Victory at
Portsmouth affords a modern parallel of a ship thus constantly patched
because it is a relic. This does not agree with our knowledge of the
Salaminia, which was a fast-sailing ship used for various state purposes,
and even in naval battles. When the embassy to Delos was started, either at
the greater (quadrennial) or the lesser (annual) festival, the Delian ship
was crowned with laurel by the priest, and so sent forth: the period of its
absence gave a respite to criminals (Plat. l.c.;
The other two ships were built and manned for speed, and were used not only
to convey theori over the sea part of their journey, but also to carry state
despatches, to fetch state criminals who were summoned home, and to bring
tribute; they served, moreover, as warships (Thuc.
; Aristoph. Birds 147
Aesch. in Ctes.
§ 162; Phot. s. v. πάραλοι, πάραλος
). Boeckh accuses Photius of
erroneously regarding these two ships as one, but the words of Photius (s.
) in speaking of the Paralus are
λέγεται δὲ ἡ αὐτὴ καὶ Σαλαμινία: ὕστερον
δὲ ἄλλαι δύο προσεγένοντο αὐταῖς
: the last word shows
that ἡ αὐτὴ
must mean “of similar
character” ; under the word πάραλος
he plainly distinguishes the two. The crew of the
Paralus (and beyond a doubt of the Salaminia also) were always held in
readiness, receiving four obols a day throughout the year. To this payment
we may refer the office of treasurer (ταμίας τῆς
p. 570.173), and we may
fairly assume that each of the sacred ships had a treasurer; at sea they
were commanded by ναύαρχοι
i. p. 307; Schömann, l.c.
). Fränkel in his note (299) shows that
Boeckh is mistaken in supposing that for these ships there were also
trierarchs. The expenses of the sacred ships were borne by the state, and
in their case provided at the
cost of the state all that for other ships was provided by the trierarch.
In later times we find also the names of Ammonis, Antigonis, and Demetrias;
and still later the Ptolemais (Plin. Nat.
; appendix to Phot. p. 676, ed. Porson; Harpocr. s. v.
). Of these the first, built
in the time of Alexander, received its name because it was specially
intended to convey theoriae to Zeus Ammon: it seems to have taken the place
of the Salaminia. (Schumann thinks it an ad ditional
ship, but see Boeckh, p. 307, and Fränkel's note.) The subsequent
addition of the Antigonis and Demetrias thus raised the number to four, as
stated by Photius; for the Demetrias no doubt replaced the ancient Delia,
which lasted only till the time of Demetrius (Plut. l.c.
). The names of these later ships and of the Ptolemais suggest a
closer connexion with political and less with religious business. [G.E.M
. The office of a
treasurer for the Paralus and the Ammonis or Ammonias is noticed in 100.61
(see note on TAMIAS
). That a
treasurer of the Salaminia is not mentioned agrees with the account
supported by Boeckh and Fränkel (op. cit.
that in the course of the 4th century B.C. Salaminia
ceased to be the name of a sacred ship, appearing as
that of an ordinary war-ship (for which a trierarch is mentioned) in the
navy records. Fränkel notes as the earliest inscription in which
the name so appears one of B.C. 357 (C. I. A.
2.793). If the
argument is correct, it follows that from that date until the Ammonis was
built we have mention of only one ship, the Paralus, which can have been
available for theoriae, other than the mission to Delos. Fränkel
has observed that the sacred ships are not included in the navy records.
Such names as Delias, Hiera, Theoris
occurring in the lists
of warships do not denote a special destination. The reference to Plutarch
should be Thes.