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TYMBORUCHIAS GRAPHE

TYMBORUCHIAS GRAPHE (τυμβωρυχίας γραφή). Pollux mentions τυμβωρύχος in a long list of ὀνόματα ἐξ ἀδικημάτων ἐφ᾽ οἷς εἰσὶ δίκαι καὶ γραφαί. No instance of this action at Athens is known to us, yet it is very probable that this action might be maintained not so much against a person who opened a tomb to rob the dead (Att. Process, ed. Lipsius, p. 456), as against a person who opened it to inter there some one who was not entitled to burial there: cf. Cic. de Legg. 2.2. 6, 64: “de sepulcris autem nihil est apud Solonem amplius quam ‘ne quis ea deleat neve alienum inferat’ poenaque est, ‘si quis bustum,’ nam id puto appellari τύμβον, ‘aut monumentum,’ inquit, ‘aut columnam violarit, deiecerit, fregerit.’ ” The custom of fixing a fine to be paid for infinging the rights of the owner of a grave arose in Lycia, and is not derived from Roman usage (Hirschfeld, Königsberger Stud. 1887, pp. 85-144). Hirschfeld considers the inscription of Pinara (C. I. G. No. 4259) to be the oldest, and assigns it to the 3rd century B.C.; in it we find all the characteristic points of such inscriptions. He who opens a tomb, or orders another person to do so, is accursed (ἁμαρτωλὸς ἔστω θεῶν πάντων καὶ Λητοῦς καὶ τῶν τέκνων), has to pay a fine (προσαποτεισάτω τάλαντον ἀργυρίου), and anyone who cares may bring an action against him (ἐξέστω τῶι βουλομένωι ἐγδικάζεσθαι περὶ τούτων), i. e. the ἔγκλημα τυμβωρυχίας (Termessus, C. I. G. No. 4336 l.): cf. ἄγεσθαι τυμβωρυχίας, Olympus, C. I. G. No. 4325 k.; ὑποκείσ[εται] τῇ τυμβωρ[υχί]ᾳ, Telmissus, No. 4221 d. Add.; τῷ τῆς τυμβωρυχίας νόμῳ, Andriace, No. 4303 m. From Lycia this custom spread, and the Roman emperors sanctioned the law: cf. Bull. de Corresp. Hellén. v. p. 344, Tralles: ὑπεύθυνος ἔσται τοῖς διατάγμασι καὶ τοῖς πατρίοις νόμοις (C. I. G. iii. p. 1128, Antiphellus: ὑπεύθυνος ἔσται τοῖς διὰ τῶν θείων δια[ταγ]ῶν ὡρισμένοις), i.e. constitutiones Imperatorum and customary laws. The [p. 2.914]amount of fine in Lycian inscriptions varies from 250 to (in one instance) 20,000 denarii; in non-Lycian Lycian inscriptions some higher amounts occur. The fine is usually paid in Lycia to the δῆμος or the πόλις; everywhere else usually to the fiscus (φίσκος, ταμιεῖον), sometimes to deities--Isis at Thebes, μήτηρ θεῶν Σιπυληνὴ in Smyrna, etc.; in isolated cases the money goes to the brothers or the heirs of the grave-owner. A Jewess directs the fine to be paid to her people, a physician to his colleagues, a slave to his mistress and her heirs. The informer received a share of the fine, sometimes one-half, sometimes one-third: τῆς προσαγγελίας οὔσης παντὶ τῷ βουλομένῳ ἐπὶ τῷ ἡμίσει, C. I. G. No. 4300 v. Add., cf. No. 4293; εἰσαγγέλλοντος τοῦ βουλομένου ἐπὶ τῷ τρίτῳ μέρει, No. 4300 e. Add.; τοῦ βουλομένου ἐξελέγχειν ἐπὶ τῷ τρίτῳ μέρει, No. 4278 i. Add.; οὔσης τῆς κατηγορίας παντὶ τῷ βουλομένῳ ἐπὶ τῷ τρίτῳ μέρει, No. 4224 d. Add., etc. An action for τυμβωρυχία is mentioned also in C. I. G. No. 2688 ff. Iasus (cf. Hicks, Journ. Hell. Soc. 1887, p. 115), No. 2826 if. Aphrodisias, No. 3266 Smyrna (Lebas-Waddington, Voyage Archéol. iii.), No. 220 Miletus, etc. Of the Attic tomb-inscriptions eleven contain a curse and five fix a fine (C. I. A. 3.2, No. 1417 ff.). These may be added to Hirschfeld's long list as well as some others discovered since the publication of his paper: two of Salonica (Journ. Hell. Stud. 1887, p. 374, and Berl. Philol. Wochenschr. 1889, No. 41), four of Heraclea in the Propontis (Berl. Phil. W. 1888, No. 14), two of Smyrna (Mitth. d. d. Archäol. Inst. xii. p. 248), one of Myra (Journ. Hell. Soc. 1889, p. 85), three from Ephesus (Anc. Greek Inscr., ed. Newton, iii. p. 253 ff.).

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