), a target, i. e. a
small round shield, made from an animal's hide (Isid. Orig.
18.12; Curt. 3.4
; Varr. ap. Non. p. 82, 18),
those of elephant's hide having the reputation of being impenetrable (Plin. Nat. 11.227
). The caetra
is compared by Livy (28.5
) to the pelta
of the Greeks and Macedonians; it was sometimes painted
Sil. 3.278), and troops advanced to
battle clashing it against their weapons (ib. 3.348, 10.231). It was
properly a barbarian arm (see, however, Verg. A.
; Suet. Calig.
19), and was especially used
by the Iberians (Caes. B.C.
, 48; Luc. Phars.
; Diod. 5.33
; Hesych.), the
Mauritanians (Strabo xvii. p.828
the Britons (Tac. Agric.
36). It is usually identified with
the target of the Scottish Highlanders, and may be seen “covering the
left arms” (Verg. l.c.
) of the two
accompanying figures, which
Cetra. (From a MS. of Prudentius.)
are taken from a MS. of Prudentius, probably written in this
country as early as the ninth century (Cod. Cotton. Cleop.
100.8). (Cf. Morelli, iii. n. 3; Cohen, Monn. Cons.