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GA´LEA (κράνος, poet. κόρυς, πήληξ), a helmet, a casque. The helmet was originally made of skin or leather, whence is supposed to have arisen its appellation, κυνέη, meaning properly a helmet of dog-skin, but applied to caps or helmets made of the hide of other animals, not necessarily worn as armo<*> (ραυρείη, κτιδέη, Hom. Il. 10.258, 335; αἰγείη, Od. 24.230; Hdt. 7.77: compare κράνη δκύτινα, Xen. Anab. 5.4, § 13; galea lupina, Prop. 4.11, 19), and even to those which were entirely of bronze or iron (πάγχαλκος, Od. 18.377). The leathern basis of the helmet was also very commonly strengthened and adorned by the addition of either bronze or gold, which is expressed by such epithets as χαλκήρης, εὔχαλκος, χρυσείη. The helmet of Hector was made of three such layers (τρίπτυχος, Hom. Il. 11.352). Helmets which, had a metallic basis (κράνη χαλκᾶ, Xen. Anab. 1.2, § 16) were in Latin properly called cassides (Isid. Orig. 18.14; Tac. Germ. 6; Caesar, Caes. Gal. 3.45), although the terms galea and cassis are often confounded. A casque (cassis) found at Pompeii is preserved in the collection at Goodrich Court, Herefordshire. (Skelton, Engraved Illust. i. pl. 44.) The perforations for the lining (cf. OCREA) and exterior border are visible along its edge. A side and a front view of it are presented in the annexed woodcut. A

Helmets. (From the collection at Goodrich Court.)

casque very like this, and inscribed with an archaic dedication to Zeus, was fished up from the bed of the Alpheus, near Olympia, and is now in the British Museum (C. I. G. No. 29). Among the materials used for the lining of helmets were felt (πῖλος, Hom. Il. 10.265) and sponge (Aristot. H. A. 5.16).

The helmet, especially that of skin or leather, [p. 1.899]was sometimes a mere cap conformed to the shape of the head, without either crest or any other ornament (ἄφαλόν τε καὶ ἄλοφον, Il. 10.358). In this state it was probably used in hunting ( “galea venatoria,C. Nep. Dat. 3.2 ), and was called καταῖτυξ (Hom. Il. l.c.), in Latin CUDO The preceding woodcut shows an example of it as worn by Diomede in a small Greek bronze, which is also in the collection at Goodrich Court. (Skelton, l.c.) The additions by which the external appearance of the helmet was varied, and which served both for ornament and protection, were the following:--

1. The (φάλος, which was either single, double (ἀμφίφαλος, δίφαλος, Hom. II. 5.743, 11.41), or quadruple (τετράφαλος, Hom. Il. 12.384; 22.314). It has been held (Liddell and Scott, s. v.) that the φάλος was the projecting peak of the helmet. According to this view, τετράφαλος is admittedly unintelligible (L. and S. loc. cit.), and it is certain that the φάλος was a ridge of metal, afterwards called κῶνος (Buttmann), which served as a support for the crest. The φάλος is well shown in the cut at p. 189 b [LORICA]. Instances occur where there are two or more such ridges. (See Helbig, Das Homerische Epos, p. 207.) In the cut below, from a gem with the head of Athene Parthenos, the φάλοι are represented by a Sphinx and two Pegasi.

2. The helmet thus adorned was very commonly surmounted by the crest (crista, λόφος, Horn. Il. 22.316), which was often of horsehair (ἵππουρις, ἱπποδάσεια, Hom. ll. cc.; λόφων ἔθειραι, Theocr. 22.186; hirsuta juba, Propert. 4.11, 19), and made so as to look imposing and terrible (Hom. Il. 3.337; Verg. A. 8.620), as well as handsome (ib. 9.365; εὔλοφος, Heliod. Aeth. vii.). The helmet often had two or even three crests. (Aesch. Sept. c. Theb. 384. Compare the cut below with the head of Athene, having a helmet with a triple crest.) In the Roman army of later times the crest served not only for ornament, but also to distinguish the centurions (Veget. 2.13). Cf. Vegetius, 2.16: “Centuriones vero habebant . . . galeas ferreas, sed transversis et argentatis cristis, ut celerius noscerentur a suis.” Compare the annexed cut from a part of a centurion's tomb, from Petronell, showing the transverse crest.

3. The two cheek-pieces (bucculae, Juv. 10.134; παραγναθίδες, Eustath. in Il. 5.743), which were

Galea. (Baumeister.)

usually attached to the helmet by hinges, so as to be lifted up and down. They had buttons or ties at their extremities for fastening the helmet on the head. (V. Fl. 6.626.) A strap passed under the wearer's chin, in the case of the Homeric helmet (Il. 3.371), but apparently cheek-pieces were not movable. The cheek-pieces were often elaborately adorned with reliefs. (Cf. Antiq. du Bosp. Cimm. pl. xxviii. fig. 1; Baumeister, fig. 2214.)

4. The beaver, or visor, a peculiar form of which is supposed to have been the αὐλῶπις τρυφάλεια, i. e. the perforated beaver. (Hom. Il. 11.353: cf. Hesych. sub voce and Helbig, Das Homerische Epos, p. 205.) The gladiators wore helmets somewhat of this kind (Juv. 8.203), and specimens of them, not unlike those worn in the Middle Ages, have been found at Pompeii. See the woodcut to GLADIATORES

The five following helmets are selected from

Helmets. (From gems.)

antique gems, and are engraved of the size of the originals.

[J.Y] [A.H.S]

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