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ALEXANDREIA

ALEXANDREIA ( Ἀλεξάνδρεια). Besides the celebrated Alexandreia mentioned above, there were several other towns of this name, founded by Alexander or his successors.


1.

In ARACHOSIA also called Alexandropolis, on the river Arachotus; its site is unknown. (Amm. Marc. 23.6.)


2.

In ARIANA ( ἐν Ἀρίοις, or Alexandreia Arion as Pliny, 6.17, names it), the chief city of the country, now Herat, the capital of Khorassan, a town which has a considerable trade. The tradition is that Alexander the Great founded this Alexandreia, but like others of the name it was probably only so called in honour of him. (Strab. pp. 514, 516, 723; Amm. Marc. 23.6.)


3.

In BACTRIANA a town in Bactriana, near Bactra (Steph. Byz.).


4.

In CARMANIA the capital of the country, now Kerman. (Amm. Marc. 23.6.)


5.

AD ISSUM ( κατ᾽ Ἴσσον: Alexandreum, Iskenderun), a town on the east side of the Gulf of Issus, and probably on or close to the site of the Myriandrus of Xenophon (Xen. Anab. 1.4), and Arrian (Arr. Anab. 2.6). It seems probable that the place received a new name in honour of Alexander. Stephanus mentions both Myriandrus and Alexandria of Cilicia, by which he means this place; but this does not prove that there were two towns in his time. Both Stephanus and Strabo (p. 676) place this Alexandria in Cilicia [AMANUS]. A place called Jacob's Well, in the neighbourhood of Iskenderun, has been supposed to be the site of Myriandrus (London Geog. Journ. vol.vii. p. 414); but no proof is given of this assertion. Iskenderun is about 6 miles SSW. of the Pylae Ciliciae direct distance. [AMANUS] The place is unhealthy in summer, and contained only sixty or seventy mean houses when Niebuhr visited it; but in recent times it is said to have improved. (Niebuhr, Reisebeschreibung, vol. iii. p. 19; London Geog. Journ. vol. x. p. 511.).


6.

OXIANA. [SOGDIANA]


7.

In PAROPAMISUS [PAROPAMISADAE]


8. Alexandria Troas

TROAS (Ἀλεξάνδρεια Τρώας, sometimes called simply Alexandreia, and sometimes Troas (Acts Apost. 16.8), now Eski Stambul or Old Stambul, was situated on the coast of Troas, opposite to the south-eastern point of the island of Tenedos, and north of Assus. It was founded by Antigonus, one of the most able of Alexander's successors, under the name of Antigoneia Troas, and peopled with settlers from Scepsis and other neighbouring towns. It was improved by Lysimachus king of Thrace, and named Alexandreia Troas; but both names, Antigoneia, and Alexandreia, appear on some coins. It was a flourishing place under the Roman empire, and had received a Roman colony when Strabo wrote (p. 593), which was sent in the time of Augustus, as the name COL. AVG. TROAS on a coin shows. In the time of Hadrian an aqueduct several miles in length was constructed, partly at the expense of Herodes Atticus, to bring water to the city from Ida. Many of the supports of the aqueduct still remain, but all the arches are broken. The ruins of this city cover a large surface. Chandler says that the walls, the largest part of which remain, are several miles in circumference. The remains of the Thermae or baths are very considerable, and doubtless belong to the Roman period. There is little marble on the site of the city, for the materials have been carried off to build houses and public edifices at Constantinople. The place is now nearly deserted.

There is a story, perhaps not worth much, that the dictator Caesar thought of transferring the seat of empire to this Alexandreia or to Ilium (Suet. Jul. 79); and some writers have conjectured that Augustus had a like design, as may be inferred from the words of Horace (Hor. Carm. 3.3.37, &c.). It may be true that Constantine thought of Alexandreia (Zosim. 2.30) for his new capital, but in the end he made a better selection.


9.

ULTIMA (Ἀλεξάνδρεια ἐσχάτη, or Ἀλεξανδρέσχατα, Appian, App. Syr. 57), a city founded among the Scythians, according to Appian. It was founded by Alexander upon the Jaxartes, which the Greeks called the Tanais, as a bulwark against the eastern barbarians. The colonists were Hellenic mercenaries, Macedonians who were past service, and some of the adjacent barbarians: the city was 60 stadia in circuit. (Arrian, Arr. Anab. 4.1. 3; Curtius, 7.6.) There is no evidence to determine the exact site, which may be that of Khodjend, as some suppose. [G.L] [p. 1.103]

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