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ANDROS (Ἄνδρος: Eth. Ἄνδριος: Andrius: Andro), the most northerly and one of the largest islands of the Cyclades, SE. of Euboea, 21 miles long and 8 broad. According to tradition it derived its name either from Andreus, a general of Rhadamanthus or from the seer Andrus. (Diod. 5.79; Paus. 10.13.4; Conon 44; Steph. B. sub voce It was colonized by Ionians, and early attained so much importance as to send colonies to Acanthus and Stageira in Chalcidice about B.C. 654. (Thuc. 4.84, 88.) The Andrians were compelled to join the fleet of Xerxes in his invasion of Greece, B.C. 480; in consequence of which Themistocles attempted to levy a large sum of money from the people, and upon their refusing to pay it, laid siege to their city, but was unable to take the place. (Hdt. 8.111, 121.) The island however afterwards became subject to the Athenians, and at a later time to the Macedonians. It was taken by the Romans in their war with Philip, B.C. 200, and given to their ally Attalus. (Liv. 31.45.)

The chief city also called Andros, was situated nearly in the middle of the western coast of the island, at the foot of a lofty mountain. Its citadel strongly fortified by nature is mentioned by Livy (l.c.). It had no harbour of its own, but it used one in the neighbourhood, called Gaurion (Ταύριον) by Xenophon (Xenoph. Hell. 1.4.22), and Gaureleon by Livy (l.c.), and which still bears the ancient name of Gavrion. The ruins of the ancient city are described at length by Ross, who discovered here, among other inscriptions, an interesting hymn to Isis in hexameter verse, of which the reader will find a copy in the Classical Museum (vol. i. p. 34, seq.). The present population of Andros is 15,000 souls. Its soil is fertile, and its chief productions are silk and wine. It was also celebrated for its wine in antiquity, and the whole island was regarded as sacred to Dionysus. There was a tradition that, during the festival of this god, a fountain flowed with wine. (Plin. Nat. 2.103, 31.13; Paus. 6.26.2.) (Thevenot, Travels, Part i. p. 15, seq.; Tournefort, Voyage, vol. i. p. 265, seq.; Fiedler, Reise, vol. ii. p. 221, seq.; and especially Ross, Reisen auf d. Griech. Inseln, vol. ii. p. 12, seq.)


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