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Eth. CHAUCI, CAUCHI, CAUCI, CAYCI (Καῦχοι, Καῦκοι), a German tribe in the east of the Frisians, between the rivers Ems and Elbe. (Plin. Nat. 4.28, 16.2; Suet. Cl. 24; Tac. Germ. 35, Ann. 11.18; D. C. 54.62, 63.30; Veil. Pat. 2.106; Strab. p. 291; Lucan 1.463; Claud. in Eutrop. 1.379, de Laud. Stil. 1.225.) In the east their country bordered on that of the Saxones, in the north-west on that of the Longobards, and in the [p. 1.606]north on that of the Angrivarii, so that the modem Oldenburg and Hanover pretty nearly represent the country of the Chauci. It was traversed by the river Visurgis, which divided the Chauci into Majores and Minores; the former occupying the western bank of the river, and the latter the eastern. (Tac. Germ. 35.) The Chauci are described by Tacitus as the most illustrious tribe among the Germans, and he adds that they were as distinguished for their love of justice and peace, as for their valour in case of need. Pliny (16.1. 2), on the other hand, who had himself been in their country, describes them as a poor and pitiable people, who, their country being almost constantly overflown by the sea, were obliged to build their habitations on natural or artificial eminences, who lived upon fish, and had only rain-water to drink, which they kept in cisterns. This latter description can be true only if limited to that portion of the Chauci who dwelt on the sea coast, but cannot apply to those who lived further inland. The Chauci were distinguished as navigators, but also carried on piracy, in pursuit of which they sailed south as far as the coast of Gaul. (Tac. Ann. 11.18; D. C. 60.30.) They were subdued by Tiberius (Vell. 2.106), and for a time they, like the Frisians, were faithful friends of the Romans (Tac. Ann. 2.8, 17, 21), until the latter exasperated them by their insolence. The consequence was, that the Romans were driven from their country, and although Gabinius Secundus gained some advantages over them, to which he even owed the honourable surname of Chaucius (D. C. 60.8; Suet. Cl. 24), and although Corbulo continued the war against them, yet the Romans were unable to reconquer them. (Tac. Ann. 11.19, 20; D. C. 60.30.) The Chauci are mentioned in history for the last time in the third century, when in the reign of Didius Julianus, they ravaged the coasts of Gaul. (Spart. Did. Jul. i.) At that time they belonged to the confederacy of the Saxons, and were one of the most warlike nations of Germany (Julian. Opera, pp. 34, 56, ed. Spanh.; Zosim. 3.6); they had, moreover, extended so far south and west, that they are mentioned as living on the banks of the Rhine. (Claud. de Laud. Stil. 1.225.)


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