), as it is called by Appian (Mlithrid.
100.105), by Ptolemy (5.8
), by Pliny (5.27
), who mentions it among the towns of the interior of Cilicia. Alexander marched from Soli to the Pyramus, which he crossed to Mallus, and he reached Castabalum, as Curtius (3.7
) calls it, on the second day.
In order to reach Issus from Castabala, it was necessary to pass through a defile, which Alexander had sent Parmenio forward to occupy.
This defile, then, was east of Castabala, and it would seem to be the Amanides Pylae of Strabo (p. 676), now Demir Kapú.
The Antonine Itin. places Catabolum, which is Castabalum, east of Aegeae or Ayas,
26 M. P., or 20 geog. miles.
The distance from Ayas
to a place called Kara Kaya
is 16 geog. miles, and from Ayas
to some ruins is 19 geog. miles.
This would identify the ruins with Castabalum.
But the Itin. gives 16 M. P., or 12 geog. miles from Castabalum to Baiae, and the distance from Kara Kaya
which is Baiae, was determined by Lieut. Murphy to be 13 geog. miles, while the distance from the ruins to Bayas
is 15 geog. miles. Ainsworth prefers the shorter of the two distances, “as it was determined by Itinerary, while the other distance from Ayás
to the ruins was determined by a boat survey.” Accordingly he identifies Castabala with Kara Kaya
worth, Travels in the Track, &c.,
p. 56; Ainsworth, London Geog. Journ.,
vol. x. p. 510, &c.)