: Eth. Glanicus
), is one of the five towns which Ptolemy (2.10.15
) mentions in the country of the Salyes in Gallia Narbonensis. Pliny (3.4
) enumerates it among the Oppida Latina of Narbonensis, and calls it Glanum Livii, a name due, as it is supposed, to Livius Drusus, who settled a colony here about B.C. 4. Glanum is placed in the Antonine Itin. on a road from Cabellio (Cavaillon
) to Arelate (Aries
): it is 16 M. P. from Cabellio to Glanum, and 12 from Glanum to Ernaginum. [ERNAGINUM
] The Table has the same route and the same names,--but it makes 12 M. P. from Cabellio to Glanum, and 8 from Glanum to Ernaginum; and these distances appear to be correct. Glanum is the village of St. Remi,
which is proved by an inscription found there with the words “Reipublicae Glanicorum” on it.
The exact site of Glanum is above a mile south of St. Remi,
near which there are at present, in a good state of [p. 1.1003]
preservation, a Roman mausoleum, and also a Roman triumphal arch, which are engraved in several works. (Mém. de l'Acad.
tom. vii. p. 263; Millin, Voyage dans les Départ. Méridionaux,
tom. iii. p. 394. pl. 63. fig. 1.)
The triumphal arch is much damaged.
The lower part contains eight columns, two on each side of the arch, or four on each front; and four bas-reliefs without inscriptions: the figures, which are above six feet high, represent captives chained, men and women; only two heads are entire.
A garland of leaves and fruits, sculptured with great skill, ornaments the archivolt.
In the intercolumniations there are the remains of consoles, which, it is supposed, supported statues.
The building, which is called a mausoleum, is about 60 feet high, resting on a square base formed of large stones, and consisting of three stories or stages.
The lowest is a quadrangular stylobate, on the upper part of each face of which is a bas-relief.
The next stage, which is also square in the plan, has four open faces, and fluted pillars engaged, with Corinthian capitals.
The third stage rests on a circular basement, above which are ten fluted columns with Corinthian capitals, surmounted by an entablature, above which is a kind of dome.
This third stage is a kind of little temple, with open spaces between the columns.
The friezes and the archivolts are ornamented with bas-reliefs.
There were two male figures in this little temple clothed with the toga, which used to rest against the columns, where they had fallen or been thrown down. They have been set again on their base, and the heads have been restored; but, as generally happens, the heads make a miserable contrast with the rest of the figures.
It is generally supposed that this building is a tomb, though some writers deny it.
But it has the following inscription, as reported in a recent work: SEX. L. M. IVLIEI C. F. PARENTIBVS. SVEIS. The three names appear to be Sextus, Lucius, and Marcus named Julii; and the c. F. signify “curaverunt faciendum.” It is, therefore, clearly a monumental building. On Italian sepulchral inscriptions “fecerunt” or “fecit” is the common expression; but “faciendum curaverunt” also occurs. (Fabretti, Inscr. Ant., &c.,
Romae, 1699, p. 358, &c.) Perhaps some careless copier of the inscription has put the c. before the F.
It is a conclusion of some French writers, which must be rejected, that the Julii who erected this monument were connected by blood or alliance with the Roman Julii. Some even conclude that it was erected in honour of the dictator Caesar and of Augustus. They further conclude, without their premises, that it was erected in the first century of the Christian aera, and that the bas-reliefs represent the conquests of Caesar in Gallia.
It was usual for Galli to take the names of their Roman patrons; and these Julii may be Galli whose ancestors had received some favour from the dictator, and probably the Roman citizenship.
The style of the edifice certainly shows that it does not belong to a late period of the empire; and that is all that we can say.
A silver coin of Glanum is mentioned, with the stamp of Massilia and the legend Γλανικων,
from which we may conclude that this place was at some time dependent on Massilia. (D'Anville, Notice, &c.;
Walckenaer, Géog., &c.
vol. ii. p. 214; Ukert, Gallien,
p. 435; Richard et Hocquart, Guide du Voyageur, &c.