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PHANAGO´RIA

PHANAGO´RIA (Φαναγορία, Strab. xi. p.494; Ptol. 5.9.6; ( Φαναγόρεια, τὰ Φαναγόρεια, Hecat. ap. Steph. B. sub voce Strab. xi. p.495; Scymn. Ch. 891; Arrian, ap. Eustath. ad Dionys. Per. 306, 549; Φαιναγόρη, Dionys. Per. 552; comp. Priscian, 565; Avien. 753; Φαναγόρα, Steph. B. sub voce Ταυρική; Φαναγόρου πόλις, Scylax, p. 31; Anonym. Peripl. P. Eux. p. 2 ; Phanagorus, Amm. Marc. 22.8; Φαναγουρίς, Procop. B. Goth. 4.5: Eth. Φαναγορεύς, less correctly Φαναγορείτης, Steph. B. sub voce a Greek city on the Asiatic side of the Cimmerian Bosporus, founded by the Teians under Phanagorus or Phanagoras, who fled thither from the Persians. (Eustath. ad Dionys. Per.; Scymn. Ch., Steph. B. sub voce Peripl. P. Eux. ll. cc.) It was situated upon an island, now called Taman, formed by the main branch of the Anticites (Kuban), which flows into the Black Sea, and a smaller branch, which falls into the sea of Azof. The main branch of the Kuban forms a lake before it enters the sea, called in ancient times Corocondamitis (Strab. xi. p.494), now the Kubanskoi Liman, on the left of which, entering from the sea, stood Phanagoria. (Strab. xi. p.495; respecting Phanagoria being upon an island, see Steph. B. sub voce Eustath., Amm. Marc., l.c.) The city became the great emporium for all the traffic between the coast of the Palus Maeotis and the countries on the southern side of the Caucasus, and was chosen by the kings of Bosporus as their capital in Asia, Panticapaeum being their capital in Europe. (Strab., Steph. B. sub voce l.c.) It was at Phanagoria that the insurrection broke out against Mithridates the Great, shortly before his death ; and his sons, who held the citadel, were obliged to surrender to the insurgents. (Appian, App. Mith. 108; Dict. of Biogr. Vol. II. p. 1102b.) In the sixth century of our era, Phanagoria was taken by the neighbouring barbarians and destroyed. (Procop. B. Goth. 4.5.) The most remarkable building in Phanagoria seems to have been a temple of Aphrodite, surnamed Apaturus (Ἀπάτουρος), because the goddess, when attacked by the giants in this place, is said to have summoned Hercules to her aid, and then to have concealed him and to have handed over the giants separately to him to be slain (δολοφονεῖν ἐξ ἀπάτης, Strab. xi. p.495; Steph. B. sub voce Ἀπάτουρον; Böckh, Inscr. No. 2120.) We learn from an inscription that this temple was repaired by Sauromates, one of the kings of Bosporus. The site of Phanagoria is now only a mass of bricks and pottery; and there is no building above ground. One cause of the disappearance of all the ancient monuments at Phanagoria was the foundation in its neighbourhood at an early period of the Russian colony of Tmutarakán. Dutour noticed traces of towers towards the eastern extremity of the town, where the citadel probably stood. The town of Taman contains several ancient remains, inscriptions, fragments of columns, &c., which have been brought from Phanagoria. There are numerous tombs above the site of Phanagoria, but they have not been explored like those at Panticapaeum. In one of them, however, which was opened towards the end of last century there was found a bracelet of the purest massive gold, representing the body of a serpent, having two heads, which were studded with rubies so as to imitate eyes and also ornamented with rows of gems. It weighed three-quarters of a pound. (Clarke, Travels, vol. i. p. 394, seq.; Pallas, Reisen, vol. ii. p. 286, &c.; Dubois, Voyage autour du Caucase, vol. v. p. 64, seq.; Ukert, vol. iii. pt. ii. p. 491.)

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