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PHARAE (Φαραί).


Sometimes PHARA Φᾶρα, Strab. viii. p.388; Pherae, Plin. Nat. 4.6; Φαρέες, Hdt. 1.145, properly the name of the people: Eth. Φαριεύς, Strab. l.c.; Φαραιεύς, Plb. 4.6; Steph. B. sub voce the territory ( Φαραική, Strab. l.c.; Plb. 4.59), a town of Achaia, and one of the twelve Achaean cities, was situated on the river Pierus or Peirus, 70 stadia from the sea, and 150 stadia from Patrae. It was one of the four cities which took the lead in restoring the Achaean League in B.C. 280. In the Social War (B.C. 220, seq.) it [p. 2.588]suffered from the attacks of the Aetolians and Eleans. Its territory was annexed by Augustus to Patrae, when the latter city was made a Roman colony after the battle of Actium. Pharae contained a large agora, with a curious statue of Hermes. The remains of the city have been found on the left bank of the Kamenitza, near Prevezó. (Hdt. 1.145; Strab. viii. pp. 386, 388; Pol. 2.41, 4.6, 59, 60, 5.94; Paus. 7.22.1, seq.; Plin. Nat. 4.6; Leake, Morea, vol. ii. p. 158.)


Φαραί, Strab. Paus.; Φηρή, Hom. Il. 5.543; Φηραί, Il. 9.151; Φεραί, Xen. Hell. 4.8. 7: Eth. Φαράτης, Strab. viii. p.388; Φαραιάτης, Paus. 4.30.3: Kalamaáta), an ancient town of Messenia, situated upon a hill rising from the left bank of the river Nedon, and at a distance of a mile from the Messenian gulf. Strabo describes it as situated 5 stadia from the sea (viii. p. 361), and Pausanias 6 (4.31.3); but it is probable that the earth deposited at the mouth of the river Nedon has, in the course of centuries, encroached upon the sea. Pherae occupied the site of Kaleamáta, the modern capital of Messenia; and in antiquity also it seems to have been the chief town in the southern Messenian plain. It was said to have been founded by Pharis, the son of Hermes. (Paus. 4.30.2.) In the Iliad it is mentioned as the well-built city of the wealthy Diocles, a vassal of the Atridae (5.543), and as one of the seven places offered by Agamemnon to Achilles (9.151); in the Odyssey, Telemachus rests here on his journey from Pylos to Sparta (3.490). After the capture of Messene by the Achaeans in B.C. 182, Pharae, Abia, and Thuria separated themselves from Messene, and became each a distinct member of the league. (Plb. 25.1.) Pharae was annexed to Laconia by Augustus (Paus. 4.30.2), but it was restored to Messenia by Tiberius. [MESSENIA p. 345.] Pausanias found at Pharae temples of Fortune, and of Nicomachus and Gorgasus, grandsons of Asclepius. Outside the city there was a grove of Apollo Carneius, and in it a fountain of water. (Paus. 4.30.3, seq., 4.31.1.) Strabo correctly describes Pharae as having an anchorage, but only for summer (viii. p. 361); and at present, after the month of September ships retire for safety to Armyró, so called from a river strongly impregnated with salt flowing into the sea at this place: it is the (ὕδωρ ἁλμυρόν, mentioned by Pausanias (4.30.2) as on the road from Abia to Pharae.

There are no ancient remains at Kalamáta, which is not surprising, as the place has always been well occupied and inhabited. The height above the town is crowned by a ruined castle of the middle ages. It was the residence of several of the Latin chieftains of the Morea. William Villehardouin II. was born here. In 1685 it was conquered and enlarged by the Venetians. It was the headquarters of the insurrection of 1770, and again of the revolution of 1821, which spread from thence over the whole peninsula. (Leake, Morea, vol. i. p. 342, seq. ; Boblaye, Récherches, &c. p. 104; Curtius, Peloponnesos, vol. ii. p. 158.)


The later name of the Homeric Phare or Pharis in Laconia. [PHARE]

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