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PHILADELPHEIA

PHILADELPHEIA (Φιλαδέλφεια: Eth. Φιλαδελφεύς).


1.

An important city in the east of Lydia, on the north-western side of Mount Tmolus, and not far from the southern bank of the river Cogamus, at a distance of 28 miles from Sardes. (Plin. Nat. 5.30; It. Ant. p. 336.) The town was founded by Attalus Philadelphus of Pergamum. (Steph. B. sub voce Strabo (xiii. p.628, comp. xii. p. 579), who places it on the borders of Catacecaumene, remarks that it frequently suffered from violent shocks of earthquakes; the walls and houses were constantly liable to be demolished, and in his time the place had become nearly deserted. During the great earthquake in the reign of Tiberius it was again destroyed. (Tac. Ann. 2.47.) But in the midst of these calamities Christianity flourished at Philadelpheia at an early period, as is attested by the book of Revelations (3.7). The town, which is mentioned also by Ptolemy (5.2.17) and Hierocles (p. 669), gallantly defended itself against the Turks on more than one occasion, until at length it was conquered by Bajazid in A.D. 1390. (G. Pachym. p. 290; Mich. Duc. p. 70; Chalcond. p. 33.) It now bears the name Allahsher, but is a mean though considerable town. Many parts of its ancient walls are still standing, and its ruined churches amount to about twenty-four. (Chandler, Traveas, p. 310, foil.; Richter, Wallfahrten, p. 513, foll.)


2.

A town in the interior of Cilicia Aspera, on the river Calycadnus, above Aphrodisias. (Ptol. 5.8.5; Hierocl. p. 710, who mentions it among the episcopal sees of Isauria.) Beaufort ( Karamania, p. 223) supposes the site to be represented by the town of Mout or Mood, which Leake regards as the site once occupied by Claudiupolis (Asia Minor, p. 17). [L.S]


3.

A town of Palestine in the district of Peraea, east of Jordan, near the river Jabbok, was the later name of Rabbath-Ammon, sometimes called Rabbah only, the ancient capital of the Ammonites. (Dent. 3.11 ; Josh. 13.25.) It was besieged by Joab and taken by David. (2 Sam. 11.1, 12.26--31; 1 Chron. 20.1.) It recovered its independence at a later period, and we find the prophets denouncing its destruction. (Jer. 49.3; Ezek. 25.5.) Subsequently, when this part of Palestine was subject to Aegypt, the city was restored by Ptolemy Philadelphus, who gave it the name of Philadelpheia. (Steph. B. sub voce Euseb. Onom. s. v. Ῥάμαθ, Ἁμμάν.) Stephanus says that it was originally called Ammana, afterwards Astarte, and lastly Philadelpheia. It is frequently mentioned under its new name by Josephus (B. J. 1.6.3, 1.19.5, 2.18.1), and also by Ptolemy (5.17.23), Pliny (5.18. s. 16), Hierocles (p. 722), and upon coins. (Eckhel, vol. iii. p. 351.) The old name, however, did not go out of use, for Polybius speaks of the city under the name of Rabbatamana (Ῥαββατάμανα, 5.71); and the ruins are now called Amman, a name which they also bore in the time of Abulfeda. (Tab. Syr. p. 91.) Burckhardt has given a description of these ruins, with a plan. The most important are the remains of a large theatre. There are also remains of several temples, some of the columns being three feet and a half in diameter. A river flows through the ruins of the town. (Burckhardt, Syria, p. 357.)

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