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PHILIPPI

Eth. PHILIPPI (Φίκιπποι: Eth.Φιλλιππεύς, Eth. Φιλιππήσιος,), a city of Macedonia, which took its name from its founder, Philip, the father of Alexander. Origin. ally, it had been called CRENIDES (Κρηνίδες, Strab. vii. p.331; Appian, App. BC 4.105, 107; Steph. B. sub voce s. v Φίλιπποι), or the “Place of Fountains,” from the numerous streams in which the Angites takes its source. Near Crenides were the principal mines of gold in a hill called, according to Appian (l.c.) DIONYSI COLLIS (λόφος Διονύσου), probably the same mountain as that where the Satrae possessed an oracle of Dionysus interpreted by the Bessi. (Hdt. 7.111.) Crenides does not appear to have belonged to the Thasians in early times although it was under their dominion in the 105th Olympiad (B.C. 360). When Philip of Macedon got possession of the mines, he worked them with so much success, that they yielded 1000 talents a year, although previously they had not been very productive. (Diod. 16.4-8.) The old city was enlarged by Philip, after the capture of Amphipolis, Pydna, and Potidaea, and fortified to protect his frontier against the Thracian mountaineers. On the plain of Philippi, between Haemus and Pangaeus, the last battle was lost by the republicans of Rome. Appian (l.c.) has given a clear description of Philippi, and the position on which Cassius and Brutus encamped. The town was situated on a steep hill, bordered to the N. by the forests through which the Cassian army advanced,--to the S. by a marsh, beyond which was the sea, to the E. by the passes of the Sapaei and Corpili, and to the W. by the great plains of Myrcinus, Drabescus, and the Strymon, which were 350 stadia in length. Not far from Philippi, was the hill of Dionysus, containing the gold mines called Asyla; and 18 stadia from the town, were two other heights, 8 stadia asunder; on the one to the N. Brutus pitched his camp, and Cassius on that to the S. Brutus was protected on his right by rocky hills, and the left of Cassius by a marsh. The river Gangas or Gangites flowed along the front, and the sea was in the rear. The camps of the two leaders, although separate, were enclosed within a common entrenchment, and midway between them was the pass, which led like a gate from Europe to Asia. The galleys were at Neapolis, 70 stadia distant, and the commissariat in Thasos, distant 100 stadia. Dio Cassius (47.35) adds, that Philippi was near Pangaeus and Symbolum, and that Symbolum, which was between Philippi and Neapolis, was so called because it connected Pangaeus with another mountain stretching inland; which indentifies it with the ridge which stretches from Právista to Kavála, separating the bay of Kavála from the plain of Philippi. The Pylae, therefore, could be no other than the pass over that mountain behind Kavála. M. Antonius took up his position on the right, opposite to that of Cassius, at a distance of 8 stadia from the enemy. Octavius Caesar was opposed to Brutus on the “left hand of the even field.” Here, in the autumn of B.C. 42, in the first engagement, Brutus was successful against Octavius, while Antonius had the advantage over Cassius. Brutus, incompetent to maintain the discipline of his troops, was forced to fight again; and in an engagement which took place on the same ground, twenty days afterwards, the Republic perished. Regarding the battle a curious mistake was repeated by the Roman writers (Manil. 1.908; Ovid, Ov. Met. 15.824; Flor. 4.42; Lucan 1.680, 7.854, 9.271; Juv. 8.242), who represented it as fought on the same ground as Pharsalia,--a mistake which may have arisen from the ambiguity in the lines of Virgil (Georg. 1.490), and favoured by the fact of the double engagement at Philippi. (Merivale, Hist. of Roman Empire, vol. iii. p. 214.) Augustus afterwards presented it with the privileges of “a colonia,” with the name “Col. Jul. Aug. Philip.” (Orelli, Inscr. 512, 3658, 3746, 4064; and on coins ; Rasche, vol. iii. pt. 2. p. 1120), and conferred upon it the “Jus Italicum.” (D. C. 51.4.) It was here, in his second missionary journey, that St. Paul, accompanied by Silas, came into contact with the itinerant traders in popular superstitions (Acts, 16.12--40); and the city was again visited by the Apostle on his departure from Greece. (Acts, 20.6.) The Gospel obtained a home in Europe here, for the first time; and in the autumn of A.D. 62, its great teacher, from his prison, under the walls of Nero's palace, sent a letter of grateful acknowledgment to his Macedonian converts. Philippi was [p. 2.600]on the Egnatian road, 33 M. P. from Amphipolis, and 21 M. P. from Acontisma. (Itin. Anton.; Itin. Hierosol.) The Theodosian Table presents two roads from Philippi to Heracleia Sintica. One of the roads passed round the N. side of the lake Cercinitis, measuring 55 M. P., the other took the S. side of the lake, and measured 52 M. P. When Macedonia was divided into two provinces by Theodosius the Younger, Philippi became the ecclesiastical head of Macedonia Prima (Neale, Hist. of East. Church, vol. i. p. 92), and is mentioned in the Handbook of Hierocles.

The site, where there are considerable remains of antiquity, is still known to the Greeks by its ancient name; by the Turks the place is called Felibedjik. For coins of Philippi, see Eckhel, vol.ii. p. 75. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. pp. 215-223.)

COIN OF PHILIPPI.

[E.B.J]

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