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SENA (Σαίνα, Ptol.: Eth. Senensis: Siena), a city of Etruria, sometimes called SENA JULIA, to distinguish it from the city of the same name on the Adriatic. It was situated nearly in the heart of Etruria, about 28 miles E. of Volaterrae and 40 S. of Florentia. There is no reason whatever to suppose that there was an Etruscan city on the site, and no allusion to its existence occurs before the establishment of the Roman colony. Even the date of this is not accurately known; but it is probable from the epithet of Julia that it was founded either by Caesar himself or by the Triumvirate in his honour. It is singular that its name is not found in the Liber Coloniarum; but its colonial rank is attested by Pliny, who calls it “colonia Senensis,” as well as by Tacitus. (Plin. Nat. 3.5. s. 8; Tac. Hist. 4.45.) It is subsequently mentioned by Ptolemy, as well as in the Tabula, which places it on a line of road from Florentia to Clusium. (Ptol. 3.1.49; Tab. Peut.) But it seems never to have been a place of much importance in ancient times, and it was not till the middle ages that it rose to be one of the first cities of Tuscany. It has no remains of antiquity. (Dennis's Etruria, vol. ii. p. 135.)


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