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SI´NGARA (τὰ Σίγγαρα, D. C. 18.22), a strongly fortified post at the northern extremity of Mesopotamia, which for awhile, as appears from many coins still extant, was occupied by the Romans as an advanced colony against the Persians. Its position has not been clearly defined by ancient writers, Stephanus B. calling it a city of Arabia, near Edessa, and Ptolemy placing it on the Tigris (5.18.9). There can, however, be no doubt that it and the mountain near it, called by Ptolemy δ Σίγγαρας ὄρος (5.18.2), are represented at the present day by the district of the Singár. It appears to have been taken by Trajan (D. C. 68.22); and as the legend on some of the coins reads ΑΥΠ. ΟΕΠ. ΚΟΛ. ΟΙΝΓΑΡΑ. and bears the head of Gordian on the obverse, it appears to have formed a Roman colony under the emperors Severus and Gordian. It was the scene of a celebrated nocturnal conflict between Constantius and Sapor, the king of Persia, the result of which was so unsatisfactory that both sides claimed the victory. (Amm. Marc. 18.5; Eutrop. 10.10; Sext. Ruf. 100.27.) Still later, under the reign of Julian, it is recorded that it underwent a celebrated siege, and at length was carried by the Persians by storm, though gallantly defended by the townspeople and two legions. (Amm. Marc. 20.6.) The country around it is stated by Ammianus and Theophylactus to have been extremely arid, which rendered it equally difficult to take or to relieve from a distance.


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