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SANGA´RIUS (Σαγγάριος: Sakarya or Sakari; Turkish Ayala), one of the principal rivers of Asia Minor, is mentioned in the Iliad (3.187, 16.719) and in Hesiod (Hes. Th. 344). Its name appears in different forms as Sagraphos (Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod. 2.724), Sangaris (Constant. Porphyr. 1.5), or Sagaris (Ov. ex Pont. 4.10 17; Plin. Nat. 6.1; Solin 43). This river had its sources on Mount Adoreus, near the town of Sangia in Phrygia, not far from the Galatian frontier (Strab. xii. p.543), and flowed in a very tortuous course, first in an eastern, then in a northern, then in a horth-western, and lastly again in a northern direction through Bithynia into the Euxine. In one part of its course it formed the boundary between Phrygia and Bithynia; and in early times Bithynia was bounded on the east by the Sangarius. [BITHYNIA]

The Bithynian part of the river was navigable, and was celebrated from the abundance of fish found in it. Its principal tributaries were the Alander, Bathys, Thymbres, and Gallus. (Comp. Scylax, p. 34; Apollon. 2.724; Scymnus. 234, foil.; Strab. xii. pp. 563, 567; Dionys. Perieg. 811; Ptol. 5.1.6; Steph. B. sub voce Liv. 38.18; Plin. Nat. 5.43; Amm. Marc. 22.9.)


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