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TREBULA (Τρήβουλα: Eth. Trebulanus), was the name of two cities or towns of the Sabines, apparently at no great distance from one another, which were called for the sake of distinction Trebula Mutusca and Trebula Suffenas.


TREBULA MUTUSCA, called by Virgil simply MUTUSCAE while the full name is preserved to us by Pliny, the only author who mentions both places ( “Trebulani qui cognominantur Mutuscaei, et qui [p. 2.1225]Suffenates,” Plin. Nat. 6.12. s. 17). Its site is clearly fixed at Monte Leone, sometimes called Monte Leone della Sabina, a village about 2 miles on the right of the Via Salaria, between Osteria Nuova and Poggio S. Lorenzo. Here there are considerable ruins, including those of a theatre, of thermae or baths, and portions of the ancient pavement. Several inscriptions have also been found here, some of which have the name of the people, “Plebs Trebulana,” “Trebulani Mutuscani,” and “Trebulani Mut.,” so that no doubt can remain of their attribution. (Chaupy, Maison d'Horace, vol. iii. pp. 93--96; Orell. Inscr. 923, 3442, 3963.) As this seems to have been much the most considerable place of the two, it is probably that meant by Strabo, who mentions Trebula without any distinctive adjunct but in conjunction with Ereturn (Strab. v. p.228). The Liber Coloniarumn also mentions a “Tribule, municipium” (p. 258) which is probably the same place. Martial also alludes to Trebula as situated among cold and damp mountain valleys (5.72), but it is not certain which of the two places he here refers to. Virgil speaks of Mutusca as abounding in olives ( “oliviferaeque Mutuscae,” Aen. 7.711), which is still the case with the neighbourhood of Monte Leone, and a village near it bears in consequence the name of Oliveto.


TREBULA SUFFENAS, the name of which is known only from Piny, is of very uncertain site. Chaupy would place it at Rocca Sinibaldi, in the valley of the Turano, but this is mere conjecture. Guattani on the other hand fixes it on a hill near Stroncone, between Rieti and Terni, where there are said to be distinct traces of an ancient town. (Chaupy, l.c.; Guattani Mon. della Sabina, vol. i. p. 190.) It is probable that the Tribula (Τρίβολα) of Dionysius, mentioned by him among the towns assigned by Varro to the Aborigines (Dionys. A. R. 1.14) may be the same with the Trebula Suffenas of Pliny. In this case we know that it could not be far from Reate. [E.H.B]

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