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TYRAS

TYRAS (ό Τύρας, Strab. ii. p.107), one of the principal rivers of European Sarmatia. According to Herodotus (4.51) it rose in a large lake, whilst Ptolemy (3.5.17, 8.1, &c.) places its sources in Mount Carpates, and Strabo (l.c.) says that they are unknown. The account of Herodotus, however, is correct, as it rises in a lake in Gallicia. (Georgii, Alte-Geogr. p. 269.) It ran in an easterly direction parallel with the Ister, and formed part of the boundary between Dacia and Sarmatia. It fell into the Pontus Euxinus to the NE. of the mouth of the Ister; the distance between them being, according to Strabo, 900 stadia (Strab. vii. p.305, seq.), and, according to Pliny (4.12. s. 26), 130 miles (from the Pseudostoma). Scymnus (Fr. 51) describes it as of easy navigation, and abounding in fish. Ovid (ex Pont. 4.10. 50) speaks of its rapid course. At a later period it obtained the name of Danastris or Danastus (Amm. Marc. 31.3.3; Jornand. Get. 5; Const. Porphyr. de Adm. Imp. 8), whence its modern name of Dniester (Neister), though the Turks still call it Tural. (Cf. Hdt. 4.11, 47, 82; Scylax, p. 29; Strab. i. p.14; Mela, 2.1, &c.; also Schaffarik, Slav. Alterth. i. p. 505.) The form Τύρις is sometimes found. (Steph. B. sub voce p. 671; Suid. s. v. Σκύφαι and Ποσειδώνιος.)

[T.H.D]

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