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TYRAS

TYRAS (Τύρας, Ptol. 3.10.16), a town of European Sarmatia, situated at the mouth of the river just described. (Hdt. 4.51; Mela, 2.1.) It was originally a Milesian colony (Scymn. Fr. 55; Anon. Peripl. P. Eux. p. 9); although Ammianus Marcellinus (22.8.41), apparently from the similarity of the name, which he writes “Tyros,” ascribes its foundation to the Phoenicians from Tyre. Pliny (4.12. s. 26; cf. Steph. B. sub voce p. 671) identifies it with an older town named Ophiusa (“gelidis pollens Ophiusa venenis,V. Fl. 6.84). Ptolemy, however (l.c.), makes them two different towns; and places Ophiusa somewhat more N., and towards the interior. Scylax knows only Ophiusa, whilst the later writers, on the other hand, knew only Tyras. (Cf. Neumann, Die Hellenen im skythenlande, p. 357, seq.) It probably lay on the site of the present Ackermann. (Clarke,> Travels, ii. p. 124; Kohl, Reisen in Südrussland, 1.167.)

[T.H.D]

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