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TRAJANO´POLIS (Τραϊανόπολις), an important town in the S. of Thrace, which was probably founded by or in honour of the emperor Trajan, about the time when Plotinopolis was founded, to perpetuate the name of his wife Plotina. Its exact site appears to be somewhat doubtful. Some authorities describe it as situated on the right bank of the Hebrus, near the pass in the range of Mount Rhodope, through which that river flows, and about 40 miles from its mouth. Now this is the site of the modern Orikhova, with which accordingly it is by some identified. It would be difficult, however, to reconcile this with the various distances given in the Itineraries: e. g. Trajanopolis is stated to be 9000 paces from Tempyra, and 29,000 from Cypsela; whereas the site above mentioned is nearly equidistant from those assigned to Tempyra and Cypsela, being, however, more distant from the former. But this is only one example out of many showing how extremely imperfect is our knowledge of the geography of Thrace, both ancient and modern. In the map of the Society [p. 2.1220]for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge Trajanopolis is placed on the Egnatian Way at a considerable distance W. of the Hebrus, and at a point which fulfils tolerably well the conditions of distance from the two places above mentioned.

Trajanopolis became the capital of the province of Rhodope, and continued to be a place of importance until the fourth century. It is remarkable, however, that it is not mentioned by Ammianus in his general description of Thrace (27.4); according to him, the chief cities of Rhodope were Maximianopolis, Maroneia, and Aenus. (Ptol. 3.11.13; Hierocl. p. 631: Procop. de Aed. 4.11; Const. Porph. de Caerim. 2.54; Cantacuz. 1.38, 3.67, et alibi; It. Ant. pp. 175, 322, 332, 333; It. Hier. p. 602; Geog. Rav. 4.6; cf. Mannert, vii. p. 224.)


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    • Claudius Ptolemy, Tetrabiblos, 3.11
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