[*] 45. The perfect and the pluperfect may be expressed by the perfect participle with the present and imperfect of εἰμί. Here, however, each part of the compound generally retains its own signification, so that this form expresses more fully the continuance of the result of the action of the perfect to the present time, and of that of the pluperfect to the past time referred to. E.g.
- Πεποιηκώς ἐστιν (or ἦν), he is (or was) in the condition of having done,—he has done (or had done).
- “Ἐμοῦ οἱ νόμοι οὐ μόνον ἀπεγνωκότες εἰσὶ μὴ ἀδικεῖν, ἀλλὰ καὶ κεκελευκότες ταύτην τὴν δίκην λαμβάνειν,” “it is the laws which not only have acquitted me of injustice, but have commanded me to inflict this punishment.” LYS. i. 34.
- “Ἐτόλμα λέγειν ὡς ἐγὼ τὸ πρᾶγμ᾽ εἰμὶ τοῦτο δεδρακώς,” “he dared to say that I was the one who had done this deed.” DEM. xxi. 104.