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[*] 538. In general conditions which take the subjunctive, Homer commonly uses the relatives without κέ or ἄν. This corresponds to his preference for the simple εἰ in general conditions (468); but relative clauses of this class are much more frequent with him than the clauses with εἰ. E.g. Ὅττι μάλ᾽ οὐ δηναιὸς ὃς ἀθανάτοισι μάχηται. Il. v. 407. Ἀνθρώπους ἐφορᾷ, καὶ τίνυται ὅς τις ἁμάρτῃ. Od. xiii. 214. Ζεὺς δ᾽ αὐτὸς νέμει ὄλβον Ὀλύμπιος ἀνθρώποισιν, ἐσθλοῖς ἠδὲ κακοῖσιν, ὅπως ἐθέλῃσιν, ἑκάστῳ. Od. vi. 188. Οὐ μὴν σοί ποτε ἶσον ἔχω γέρας, ὁππότ᾽ Ἀχαιοὶ Τρώων ἐκπέρσωσ᾽ εὐναιόμενον πτολίεθρον. Il. i. 163.So also Il. i. 554, Il. iii. 109, Il. xiv. 81; Od. viii. 546, Od. xviii. 134.Here the meaning is essentially the same as when κέ or ἄν is added, as in the examples under 532. The greater development of the general relative condition in Homer, especially in the use of the optative, compared with the less developed general condition with εἰ, has already been noticed (17; 400; 468).
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