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663. Indirect quotations may be introduced by ὅτι or ὡς and occasionally by other particles (negatively ὅτι οὐ, ὡς οὐ, etc.) with a finite verb; sometimes by the infinitive without a particle; sometimes also by the participle.

1. Ὅτι, that, was originally the neuter relative τι, used as a limiting accusative, in respect to which (or what), as to which, how far, etc. In Homer , neuter of the relative ὅς, is used like ὅτι (709, 1). Thus οἶδα τι (or ) κακὰ μήδεται at first meant I know as to what he plans evil, or I know about his planning evil, and afterwards came to mean I know that he plans evil.

2. Ὡς, the relative adverb of manner (312, 1), in this construction originally meant in what manner, how; and afterwards became established in the same sense as ὅτι, that. Compare the German use of wie (how) in narration. How for that is heard in vulgar English (as I told him how I saw this), and how that was once in good use in this sense for that. Ὅπως is sometimes used like ὡς in indirect discourse (706).

3. By a use similar to that of ὡς (2), οὕνεκα and ὁθούνεκα are sometimes weakened from their meaning for which purpose, wherefore, to the same sense as ὅτι and ὡς, that (710, 1). These words are also used in a causal sense, because, like ὅτι, , and ὡς (712).

On the other hand, διότι, because, sometimes has the sense of ὅτι, that (710, 2).

4. Ὅτε, when, in Homer sometimes loses its temporal force, and approaches ὅτι in meaning (709, 3).

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