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689. When a complex sentence is indirectly quoted, its leading verb follows the principles already stated for simple sentences (669-688).

1. If the quotation depends on a primary tense, all the dependent verbs of the original sentence retain the mood and tense of the direct discourse.

2. After a secondary tense, all dependent verbs of the original sentence which there stood in the present, perfect, or future indicative, or in any tense of the subjunctive, may either be changed to the same tense of the optative or retain both the mood and tense of the direct discourse, the optative being the more common form. When the subjunctive is changed to the optative, ἄν is dropped, ἐάν, ὅταν, etc., becoming εἰ, ὅτε, etc.

3. But dependent secondary tenses of the indicative and all dependent optatives remain unchanged after all tenses (see, however, 693). E.g.

1. (After primary tenses.) Ἂν δ᾽ ὑμεῖς λέγητε, ποιήσειν (φησὶ) μήτ᾽ αἰσχύνην μήτ᾽ ἀδοξίαν αὐτῷ φέρει. DEM. xix. 41 (i.e. ποιήσω, μήτ᾽ . . . ἐμοὶ φέρει). Νομίζω γὰρ, ἂν τοῦτ᾽ ἀκριβῶς μάθητε, μᾶλλον ὑμᾶς τούτοις μὲν ἀπιστήσειν ἐμοὶ δὲ βοηθήσειν. Id. xxx. 25. Ἐὰν ἐκεῖνο εἰδῶμεν, ὅτι ἅπανθ᾽ ὅσα πώποτ᾽ ἠλπίσαμέν τινα πράξειν ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν καθ᾽ ἡμῶν εὕρηται, κἂν μὴ νῦν ἐθέλωμεν ἐκεῖ πολεμεῖν αὐτῷ, ἐνθάδ᾽ ἴσως ἀναγκασθησόμεθα τοῦτο ποιεῖν, κ.τ.λ. Id. iv. 50. Προλέγω ὅτι, ὁπότερ᾽ ἂν ἀποκρίνηται, ἐξελεγχθήσεται. PLAT. Euthyd. 275E See DEM. xxi. 66, where two such conditional sentences depend on εἰ πρόδηλον γένοιτο, and Il. xiii. 741 (see 178 and 184, above).

Ὁρῶ σοὶ τούτων δεῆσον, ὅταν ἐπιθυμήσῃς φιλίαν πρός τινας ποιεῖσθαι. XEN. Mem. ii. 6, 29. Παράδειγμα σαφὲς καταστήσατε, ὃς ἂν ἀφιστῆται, θανάτῳ ζημιωσόμενον. THUC. iii. 40.See 687.

2. (Optative after secondary tenses.) Εἶπε ὅτι ἄνδρα ἄγοι ὃν εἷρξαι δέοι, he said that he was bringing a man whom it was necessary to confine, i.e. he said ἄνδρα ἄγω ὃν εἷρξαι δεῖ. XEN. Hell. v. 4, 8. Ἀπεκρίνατο ὅτι μανθάνοιεν οἱ μανθάνοντες οὐκ ἐπίσταιντο, i.e. he replied, μανθάνουσι οὐκ ἐπίστανται. PLAT. Euthyd. 276E.. (Here οὐκ shows that has a definite antecedent, and takes the optative only because it is in indirect discourse. So with ὅν in the preceding example.) Ἀγησίλαος ἔλεγεν ὅτι, εἰ βλαβερὰ πεπραχὼς εἴη, δίκαιος εἴη ζημιοῦσθαι, i.e. he said εἰ βλαβερὰ πέπραχε, δίκαιός ἐστι ζημιοῦσθαι. XEN. Hell. v. 2, 32. So XEN. An. ii. 1, 3 , XEN. An. iii. 5, 15 , XEN. An. vi. 6, 25.

Εἰ δέ τινα φεύγοντα λήψοιτο, προηγόρευεν ὅτι ὡς πολεμίῳ χρήσοιτο. Cyr. iii. 1, Cyr. 3. (This is a quotation of εἴ τινα λήψομαι, χρήσομαι.) Γνόντες δὲ ὅτι, εἰ δώσοιεν εὐθύνας, κινδυνεύσοιεν ἀπολέσθαι, πέμπουσιν καὶ διδάσκουσιν τοὺς Θηβαίους ὡς, εἰ μὴ στρατεύσοιεν, κινδυνεύσοιεν οἱ Ἀρκάδες πάλιν λακωνίσαι. Hell. vii. 4, Hell. 34. Ἤιδει γὰρ ὅτι, εἰ μάχης ποτὲ δεήσοι, ἐκ τούτων αὐτῷ παραστάτας ληπτέον εἴη. Id. Cyr. viii. 1, Id. Cyr. 10. (The direct discourse was εἴ τι δεήσει, ληπτέον ἐστίν.)

Ἐλογίζοντο ὡς, εἰ μὴ μάχοιντο, ἀποστήσοιντο αἱ περιοικίδες πόλεις. Hell. vi. 4, Hell. 6. (Ἐὰν μὴ μαχώμεθα, ἀποστήσονται.) Χρήμαθ᾽ ὑπισχνεῖτο δώσειν, εἰ τοῦ πράγματος αἰτιῷντο ἐμέ. DEM. xxi. 104. (Δώσω, ἐὰν αἰτιᾶσθε.) Ἡγεῖτο γὰρ ἅπαν ποιήσειν αὐτὸν, εἴ τις ἀργύριον διδοίη. LYS. xii. 14. Εὔξαντο σωτήρια θύσειν, ἔνθα πρῶτον εἰς φιλίαν γῆν ἀφίκοιντο. XEN. An. v. 1, 1. (The dependent clause is found in the direct form in iii. 2, XEN. An. 9: δοκεῖ μοι εὔξασθαι τῷ θεῷ τούτῳ θύσειν σωτήρια ὅπου ἂν πρῶτον εἰς φιλίαν χώραν ἀφικώμεθα.) Τοῦτο ἐπραγματεύετο νομίζων, ὅσα τῆς πόλεως προλάβοι, πάντα ταῦτα βεβαίως ἕξειν (ὅσ᾽ ἂν προλάβω, βεβαίως ἕξω). DEM. xviii. 26. Ἤλπιζον ὑπὸ τῶν παίδων, ἐπειδὴ τελευτήσειαν τὸν βίον, ταφήσεσθαι (ἐπειδὰν τελευτήσωμεν, ταφησόμεθα). LYS. xiii. 45. Κόνων ἐδίδασκεν ὡς οὕτω μὲν ποιοῦντι πᾶσαι αὐτῷ αἱ πόλεις φιλίαι ἐσοιντο, εἰ δὲ δουλοῦσθαι βουλόμενος φανερὸς ἔσοιτο, ἔλεγεν ὡς μία ἑκάστη πολλὰ πράγματα ἱκανὴ εἴη παρέχειν, καὶ κίνδυνος εἴη μὴ καὶ οἱ Ἕλληνες, εἰ ταῦτα αἴσθοιντο, συσταῖεν. XEN. Hell. iv. 8, 2. Εἶπε τε ὅτι πᾶσα ἀνάγκη εἴη τοῦτον ἐλλόγιμον γενέσθαι, εἴπερ εἰς ἡλικίαν ἔλθοι (ἀνάγκη ἐστὶν, ἐὰν ἔλθῃ). PLAT. Theaet. 142D. Ἐνόμισε μὴ ἂν γενέσθαι ποτὲ πιστὸν ἄνθρωπον ὅστις ἄλλον μᾶλλον φιλήσοι τοῦ τῆς φυλακῆς δεομένου, he believed that no man could ever be made faithful who was to love (see 527) any one more than the one needing his guardianship (οὐκ ἂν γένοιτο εἰ φιλήσει). XEN. Cyr. vii. 5, 59. Ὤμοσεν Ἀγεσιλάῳ, εἰ σπείσαιτο ἕως ἔλθοιεν οὓς πέμψειε πρὸς βασιλέα ἀγγέλους, διαπράξεσθαι, κ.τ.λ. Ag. i. 10. (The oath was ἐὰν σπείσῃ ἕως ἂν ἔλθωσιν ἄγγελοι οὓς ἂν πέμψω, διαπράξομαι.) Even in Homer, Il. ii. 597, we find στεῦτο γὰρ εὐχόμενος νικησέμεν, εἴ περ ἂν αὐταὶ Μοῦσαι ἀείδοιεν, for he promised with a boast that he would be victor, even if the Muses themselves should sing. (For εἰ ἄν with the optative, see 460; or ἀείδοιεν may represent a subjunctive, 692.)

Ἔτι δὲ γιγνώσκειν ἔφασαν φθονοῦντας μὲν αὐτοὺς εἴ τι σφίσιν ἀγαθὸν γίγνοιτο, ἐφηδομένους δ᾽ εἴ τις συμφορὰ προσπίπτοι, they said they knew that they (the Mantineans) were envious if any good came to them, but pleased if any calamity befell them. XEN. Hell. v. 2, 2. (Φθονεῖτε μὲν ἐάν τι ἡμῖν ἀγαθὸν γίγνηται, ἐφήδεσθε δ᾽ ἐάν τις συμφορὰ προσπίπτῃ.) Τὴν αἰτίαν, πρόδηλος ἦν ἐπ᾽ ἐκείνους ἥξουσα εἴ τι πάθοι Χαρίδημος (ἥξει, ἐάν τι πάθῃ Χαρίδημος). DEM. xxiii. 12.

(Subjunctive and Indicative retained after secondary tenses.) Ἔλεγον ὅτι ἄκρα τέ ἐστιν ἔνδον καὶ οἱ πολέμιοι πολλοὶ, οἳ παίουσιν τοὺς ἔνδον ἀνθρώπους, they said that there was a height, etc. XEN. An. v. 2, 17. (Here εἶεν and παίοιεν might have been used.)

Ἐδόκει μοι ταύτῃ πειρᾶσθαι σωθῆναι, ἐνθυμουμένῳ ὅτι, ἐὰν μὲν λάθω, σωθήσομαι, κ.τ.λ. LYS. xii. 15. (Here εἰ λάθοιμι, σωθησοίμην might have been used.) Φάσκων τε, ἢν σωθῇ οἴκαδε, κατά γε τὸ αὑτῷ δυνατὸν διαλλάξειν Ἀθηναίους καὶ Λακεδαιμονίους, ἀπέπλευσεν. XEN. Hell. i. 6, 7. (He said ἢν σωθῶ, which might have been changed to εἰ σωθείη.) Ταῦθ᾽ ὑμᾶς ἔπεισε πρᾶξαι, εὖ εἰδὼς ὅτι, εἰ μὴ πασῶν τῶν ἐλπίδων ἀποστερηθήσεσθε, ταχεῖαν παρ᾽ αὐτοῦ τὴν τιμωρίαν κομιεῖσθε. LYS. xii. 70. Ὑπέσχοντο αὐτοῖς, ἢν ἐπὶ Ποτίδαιαν ἴωσιν Ἀθηναῖοι, ἐς τὴν Ἀττικὴν ἐσβαλεῖν (ἢν ἴωσιν, ἐσβαλοῦμεν). THUC. i. 58. Καὶ οὐκ ἔφασαν ἰέναι, ἐὰν μή τις αὐτοῖς χρήματα διδῷ: δ᾽ ὑπέσχετο ἀνδρὶ ἑκάστῳ δώσειν πέντε μνᾶς, ἐπὰν εἰς Βαβυλῶνα ἥκωσι, καὶ τὸν μισθὸν ἐντελῆ, μέχρι ἂν καταστήσῃ τοὺς Ἕλληνας εἰς Ἰωνίαν πάλιν. XEN. An. i. 4, 12 and 13. Ἔφη χρῆναι, οἳ ἂν ἐλεγχθῶσι διαβάλλοντες τῶν Ἑλλήνων, ὡς προδότας ὄντας τιμωρηθῆναι. Ib. ii. 5, Ib. 27.See AESCHIN. iii. 145.

Εἰ δὲ μὴ, καὶ αὐτοὶ ἔφασαν αὐτῶν τοὺς ἄνδρας ἀποκτενεῖν οὓς ἔχουσι ζῶντας, otherwise, they said, they should themselves kill their men whom they had in their hands alive (ἔχοιεν might have been used). THUC. ii. 5. Κατασχίσειν τὰς πύλας ἔφασαν, εἰ μὴ ἑκόντες ἀνοίξουσιν. XEN. An. vii. 1, 16. (Εἰ μὴ ἀνοίξοιεν might have been used.) So THUC. i. 137. Αὐτοῖς τοιαύτη δόξα παρειστήκει, ὡς, εἰ μὲν πρότερον ἐπ᾽ ἄλλην πόλιν ἴασιν, ἐκείνοις καὶ Ἀθηναίοις πολεμήσουσιν: εἰ δ᾽ ἐνθάδε πρῶτον ἀφίξονται, οὐδένας ἄλλους τολμήσειν, κ.τ.λ. LYS. ii. 22. Οὐδὲν ὄφελος ἔφη τῶν χθὲς εἰρημένων εἶναι λόγων, εἰ ταῦθ᾽ οἱ Φιλίππου μὴ συμπεισθήσονται πρέσβεις. AESCHIN. iii. 71. πρόδηλον ἦν ἐσόμενον, εἰ μὴ ὑμεῖς κωλύσετε, it was manifest that this would be so unless you should prevent it (i.e. ἔσται, εἰ μὴ κωλύσετε). Id. iii. 90. (Κωλύσοιτε might be used; and εἰ μὴ κωλύσαιτε representing ἐὰν μὴ κωλύσητε is in one Ms.)

3. (Past tenses of Indicative retained after secondary tenses.) Ἐπιστεῖλαι δὲ σφίσιν αὐτοῖς τοὺς ἐφόρους (ἔφασαν) εἰπεῖν, ὡς ὧν μὲν πρόσθεν ἐποίουν μέμφοιντο αὐτοῖς, that the Ephors charged them to say that they blamed them for what they had done before (i.e. ὧν πρόσθεν ἐποιεῖτε μεμφόμεθα ὑμῖν). XEN. Hell. iii. 2, 6.

Ἤλπιζον τοὺς Σικελοὺς ταύτῃ, οὓς μετέπεμψαν, ἀπαντήσεσθαι, “they hoped that the Sikels whom they had sent for would meet them here.” THUC. vii. 80. Λέγουσι δέ τινες καὶ ἑκούσιον φαρμάκῳ ἀποθανεῖν αὐτὸν, ἀδύνατον νομίσαντα εἶναι ἐπιτελέσαι βασιλεῖ ὑπέσχετο, and some say even that he (Themistocles) died a voluntary death by poison, believing that it was impossible to perform for the King what he had promised (ἀδύνατόν ἐστιν ἐπιτελέσαι ὑπεσχόμην). Id. i. 138. Ἀντέλεγον, λέγοντες μὴ ἐπηγγέλθαι πω τὰς σπονδὰς ὅτ᾽ ἐσέπεμψαν τοὺς ὁπλίτας. Id. v. 49. Ἔλεγον ὡς Ξενοφῶν οἴχοιτο ὡς Σεύθην οἰκήσων καὶ ὑπέσχετο αὐτῷ ἀποληψόμενος. XEN. An. vii. 7, 55. Ἕκαστον ἠρόμην, εἴ τινες εἶεν μάρτυρες ὧν ἐναντίον τὴν προῖκ᾽ ἀπέδοσαν (εἰσὶ μάρτυρες, ὧν ἐναντίον ἀπέδοτε; ). DEM. xxx. 19.

The aorist indicative is not changed to the aorist optative here, to avoid confusion, as the latter tense in such dependent clauses generally represents the aorist subjunctive of the direct form. Thus ἔφη εὕροι δώσειν means he said that he would give whatever he might find ( ἂν εὕρω δώσω); but if εὕροι could also represent εὗρον, it might also mean he said that he would give what he had found. In the leading clause the ambiguity is confined to indirect questions, in which the aorist indicative is generally retained for the same reason (see 125).

(Past tenses of the Indicative in unreal conditions retained.) Ἐδόκει, εἰ μὴ ἔφθασαν ξυλλαβόντες τοὺς ἄνδρας, προδοθῆναι ἂν τὴν πόλιν. THUC. vi. 61. (If ἔφθασαν were optative, it would represent an optative of direct discourse.) Οἴεσθε τὸν πατέρα, εἰ μὴ Τιμοθέου ἦν τὰ ξύλα καὶ ἐδεήθη οὗτος αὐτοῦ παρασχεῖν τὸ ναῦλον, ἐᾶσαι ἄν ποτε, κ.τ.λ., ἀλλ᾽ οὐκ ἂν φυλάττειν καὶ τὴν τιμὴν λαμβάνειν, ἕως ἐκομίσατο τὰ ἑαυτοῦ; DEM. xlix. 35. Τούτων εἴ τι ἦν ἀληθὲς, οἰεσθ᾽ οὐκ ἂν αὐτὴν λαβεῖν; Id. xxvii. 56. Ἡδέως ἂν ὑμῶν πυθοίμην, τίν᾽ ἄν ποτε γνώμην περὶ ἐμοῦ εἴχετε εἰ μὴ ἐπετριηράρχησα ἀλλὰ πλέων ᾠχόμην. L. Id. 67.

(Dependent Optatives retained.) Εἶπεν ὅτι ἔλθοι ἂν εἰς λόγους εἰ ὁμήρους λάβοι (he said ἔλθοιμι ἂν εἰ ὁμήρους λάβοιμι). XEN. Hell. iii. 1, 20. Ἧττον ἂν διὰ τοῦτο τυγχάνειν (δοκεῖ μοι), εἴ τι δέοισθε παρ᾽ αὐτῶν. Id. An. vi. 1, Id. An. 26. Ἔλεγεν ὅτι οὐκ ἄν ποτε προοῖτο, ἐπεὶ ἅπαξ φίλος αὐτοῖς ἐγένετο, οὐδ᾽ εἰ ἔτι μὲν μείους γένοιντο ἔτι δὲ κάκιον πράξειαν. Ib. i. 9, Ib. 10. Δεινὸν ἄν τι παθεῖν σαυτὸν ἤλπιζες, εἰ πύθοινθ᾽ οὗτοι τὰ πεπραγμένα σοι. DEM. xix. 240.

Sentences such as these are often translated like those which had a future and a dependent subjunctive in the direct discourse. Thus ἔλεγεν ὅτι χαίροι ἂν εἰ τοῦτο γένοιτο or ἔλεγε χαίρειν ἂν εἰ τοῦτο γένοιτο, as well as ἔλεγεν ὅτι χαιρήσοι εἰ τοῦτο γένοιτο or ἔλεγε χαιρήσειν εἰ τοῦτο γένοιτο, may all be translated he said that he should rejoice if this should happen; although in the first two sentences the direct discourse was χαίροιμι ἂν εἰ τοῦτο γένοιτο, I should rejoice if this should happen, and in the last two, χαιρήσω ἐὰν τοῦτο γένηται, I shall rejoice if this shall happen. (See 456.)

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