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719. 1. A causal sentence may give the cause of something that is implied, but not expressed, in the leading sentence. Especially it may give the reason for making a statement, rather than for the fact stated. In dialogues, a causal sentence may refer to an implied yes or no. E.g.

Οὔ νυ καὶ ὑμῖν οἴκοι ἔνεστι γόος, ὅτι μ᾽ ἤλθετε κηδήσοντες; have you now no mourning at home, that you have come to distress me? (i.e. I ask this, because you have come). Il. xxiv. 239. (If the two clauses were reversed—have you come because you have no mourning at home?—the causal relation would be plainer.) Οὔ μ᾽ ἔτ᾽ ἐφάσκεθ᾽ ὑπότροπον οἴκαδ᾽ ἱκέσθαι, ὅτι μοι κατεκείρετε οἶκον, i.e. you thought I should never return (as is plain), because you wasted my house. Od. xxii. 35.See ἐπεί in Od. i. 231.Ὡς ἔστιν ἀνδρὸς τοῦδε τἄργα ταῦτά σοι,” “yes (answering the preceding question), for here you have the deeds of this man.” SOPH. Aj. 39 : so Ph. 812.

2. By a natural ellipsis, ἐπεί sometimes has virtually the force of although or and yet. E.g.

Αἰσχυνοίμην ἂν ἔγωγε τοῦτο ὁμολογεῖν, ἐπεὶ πολλοί γέ φασι τῶν ἀνθρώπων, I should be ashamed for my part to admit this, and yet many men do say so (in full, I speak for myself alone, since many say this). PLAT. Prot. 333 C. See ibid. 335 C (quoted in 717), where ἐπεὶ ἂν . . . ἤκουον refers to the implied idea I am sorry after all to go. In Hom. Od. i. 236, ἐπεὶ οὔ κε . . . ἀκαχοίμην, and yet I should not be thus afflicted by his death, refers to what ἄιστον suggests, I am especially grieved by his death in obscurity (cf. vss. 241, Hom. Od. 242).

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