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[*] 323. Sometimes the optative is properly used after a leading verb which implies a reference to the past as well as the present. E.g. Τοῦτον ἔχει τὸν τρόπον ὁ νόμος, ἵνα μηδὲ πεισθῆναι μηδ᾽ ἐξαπατηθῆναι γένοιτ᾽ ἐπὶ τῷ δήμῳ. DEM. xxii. 11. (Here ἔχει implies also the past existence of the law; the idea being, the law was made as it is, so that it might not be possible, etc.) So DEM. xxiv. 145, DEM. 147.In DEM. iii. 34 ἵνα τοῦθ᾽ ὑπάρχοι depends on a past verb of saying to be mentally supplied. In AR. Ran. 23, τοῦτον δ᾽ ὀχῶ, ἵνα μὴ ταλαιπωροῖτο μηδ̓ ἄχθος φέροι, I am letting him ride, that he might not be distressed, etc., the meaning of ὀχῶ goes back to the time when Dionysus first let the slave mount the ass.
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