As the infinitive is a verbal noun, so the participle is a
verbal adjective; both retaining all the attributes of a verb which are
consistent with their nature.
The participle has three uses:—first, it may express
, qualifying a noun like an
ordinary adjective (824-831
); secondly, it may define the circumstances
under which the action of the sentence takes
thirdly, it may be joined to a verb to supplement
its meaning, often having a force resembling that of
the infinitive (877-919
The distinction between the second and third of these classes
is less clearly marked than that between the first and the two others:
thus in ἥδεται τιμώμενος
he delights in being honoured
participle is generally classed as supplementary (881)
, although it expresses cause
. Even an
attributive participle may also be circumstantial; as ὁ μὴ δαρεὶς ἄνθρωπος
the unflogged man
, involves a
condition. The three classes are, nevertheless, sufficiently distinct
for convenience, though the lines (like many others in syntax) must not
be drawn so strictly as to defeat their object.
The participle may qualify a noun, like an attributive
adjective. Here it may often be translated by a finite verb and a
relative, especially when it is preceded by the article. E.g.
κάλλει διαφέρουσα, a city
excelling in beauty.
καλῶς πεπαιδευμένος, a man
(who has been) well educated.
πρέσβεις οἱ παρὰ Φιλίππου πεμφθέντες, the ambassadors (who had been) sent from
οἱ τοῦτο ποιήσοντες, men
who will do this.
“Ἐν τῇ Μεσσηνίᾳ
ποτὲ οὔσῃ γῇ,”
“in the land which was once Messenia.”
τὰς Αἰόλου νήσους καλουμένας,”
“they sail against the so-called
Aeolian islands, lit. the islands called those of
“Αἱ ἄρισται δοκοῦσαι
“the natures which seem to be best.”
Mem. iv. 1, 3.
“Αἱ πρὸ τοῦ στόματος
εἶναι τὸν κατειληφότα κίνδυνον τὴν πόλιν,”
“the danger which had overtaken the
“Ὁ μὴ δαρεὶς
ἄνθρωπος οὐ παιδεύεται”
The participle with the article may be used substantively
, like any adjective. Here it may
generally be translated by a finite verb and a relative, the verb
expressing the tense of the participle. E.g. Οἱ κρατοῦντες
, those who have been convinced.
Οὗτός ἐστι ὁ τοῦτο
, this is the one who did it.
Οὗτοί εἰσιν οἱ ὑμᾶς πάντας
, these are the men who
will wrong you all.
Πάντες οἱ παρόντες τοῦτο
, all who were present saw
Τὸ κρατοῦν τῆς πόλεως
the ruling part of the state.
Ὁ μὴ λαβὼν καὶ
διαφθαρεὶς νενίκηκε τὸν ὠνούμενον
, he who did not take
) and become corrupt has
defeated the one who would buy him.
(see 841). Τῶν
, there being
in the country those who would cultivate it
(i.e. men to cultivate it
). XEN. An. ii. 4,
and 840.) Παρὰ τοῖς
ἀρίστοις δοκοῦσιν εἶναι,
“among those who seem to be best.”
Id. Mem. iv.
, Id. Mem. 6.
Ἦν δὲ ὁ μὲν τὴν γνώμην
ταύτην εἰπὼν Πείσανδρος,
“and Peisander was the one who gave this opinion.”
THUC. viii. 68.
Τοῖς Ἀρκάδων σφετέροις οὖσι
“they proclaimed to those of the Arcadians who
were their allies.”
Id. v. 64.
Ἀφεκτέον ἐγώ φημι εἶναι τῷ
, i.e. one who
is to be able to be discreet.
XEN. Symp. iv.
When the participle, in either of these constructions, refers
to a purpose, intention, or expectation, it is generally future, though
sometimes present. E.g. Νόμον
δημοσίᾳ τὸν ταῦτα κωλύσοντα τέθεινται τουτονί
, they have publicly enacted this law
, which is to prevent these things.
See XEN. An. ii. 4, 22
in 825. Ὁ ἡγησόμενος οὐδεὶς ἔσται,
“there will be nobody who will lead us.”
Ib. ii. 4
Πολλοὺς ἕξομεν τοὺς ἑτοίμως
. ISOC. viii. 139.
See the more common use of the circumstantial future
participle to express a purpose, in 840.
) Participles, like adjectives,
are occasionally used substantively even without the article, in an
indefinite sense; generally in the plural. E.g. Ἔπλει δώδεκα τριήρεις ἔχων ἐπὶ πολλὰς
“he sailed with twelve triremes against men who
had many ships.”
XEN. Hell. v. 1,
Ὅταν πολεμούντων πόλις ἁλῷ,
“whenever a city of belligerents is taken.”
Id. Cyr. vii.
, Id. Cyr.
Μετὰ ταῦτα ἀφικνοῦνταί μοι
ἀπαγγέλλοντες ὅτι ὁ πατὴρ ἀφεῖται
, there come messengers announcing
, etc. ISOC. xvii. 11.
Δύναιτ᾽ ἂν οὐδ᾽ ἂν ἰσχύων
“not even a strong man could escape.”
SOPH. El. 697.
“Οὐκ ἔστι φιλοῦντα ῾α
λοϝεῤ μὴ ἀντιφιλεῖσθαι;
) This use in the singular
appears especially in θνητὸν
, one who is a mortal.
indefinite expression, though masculine, may refer to both sexes. E.g.
Ἐν ποικίλοις δὲ θνητὸν
ὄντα κάλλεσιν βαίνειν ἐμοὶ μὲν οὐδαμῶς ἄνευ
, i.e. for a mortal
) to walk on
these rich embroideries
, etc. AESCH. Ag. 923.
Κούφως φέρειν χρὴ θνητὸν ὄντα
, (one who is
) a mortal
) must bear calamities
(addressed to Medea). EUR. Med. 1018.
So in SOPH. Ant. 455
means a mortal
), and refers to Antigone, not to Creon ; she means that
Creon 's proclamations could not justify her in violating the edicts of
In the poets, the participle with the article sometimes
becomes so completely a substantive, that it takes an adnominal genitive
rather than the case which its verbal force would require. A few
expressions like οἱ
, τὸ συμφέρον
or τὰ συμφέροντα
, are thus used even in prose. E.g.
Ὁ ἐκείνου τεκών
(for ὁ ἐκεῖνον τεκών
). EUR. El. 335.
Τὰ μικρὰ συμφέροντα τῆς
“the small advantages of the state.”
DEM. xviii. 28.
Βασιλέως προσήκοντές τινες,
“certain relatives of the king.”
) The neuter singular of the
present participle with the article is sometimes used as an abstract
noun, where we should expect the infinitive with the article. This
occurs chiefly in Thucydides and in the poets. E.g. Ἐν τῷ μὴ μελετῶντι ἀξυνετώτεροι ἔσονται,
“in the want of practice they will be less
THUC. i. 142.
(Here we should expect ἐν τῷ μὴ
.) Γνώτω τὸ
μὲν δεδιὸς αὐτοῦ τοὺς ἐναντίους μᾶλλον φοβῆσον, τὸ δὲ
θαρσοῦν ἀδεέστερον ἐσόμενον
. Id. i. 36.
(Here τὸ δεδιός
, is used like τὸ δεδιέναι
, and τὸ θαρσοῦν
, like τὸ
.) Μετὰ τοῦ
, with action
μετὰ τοῦ δρᾶσθαι
Id. v. 102.
Τοῦ ὑπαπιέναι πλέον ἢ τοῦ
μένοντος τὴν διάνοιαν ἔχουσιν
(infin. and partic.
combined). Id. v. 9.
Καὶ σέ γ᾽ εἰσάξω: τὸ γὰρ
νοσοῦν ποθεῖ σε ξυμπαραστάτην λαβεῖν
. SOPH. Ph. 674
= ἡ νόσος
). Τὸ γὰρ ποθοῦν ἕκαστος ἐκμαθεῖν θέλων οὐκ
ἂν μεθεῖτο, πρὶν καθ᾽ ἡδονὴν κλύειν
. Id. Tr. 196.
This is really the same use of the neuter singular of an
adjective for the corresponding abstract noun, which is common in
ordinary adjectives; as τὸ
, for τὸ κάλλος; τὸ δίκαιον
for ἡ δικαιοσύνη
and ἡ ἀδικία
) A similar construction
sometimes occurs when a participle and a noun are used like an articular
infinitive with its subject, where in English we generally use a finite
verb. E.g. Μετὰ δὲ Σόλωνα
οἰχόμενον ἔλαβε νέμεσις μεγάλη Κροῖσον
, i.e. after Solon was gone
(like μετὰ τὸ Σόλωνα οἴχεσθαι
). HDT. i. 34.
Ἐπὶ τούτου τυραννεύοντος,
“in his reign.”
Id. i. 15
viii. 44. Ἔτει πέμπτῳ μετὰ
“in the fifth year after the foundation of
THUC. vi. 3.
Compare post urbem
in Latin. Μετὰ
καλὸν οὕτω καὶ παντοδαπὸν λόγον ῥηθέντα
(like μετὰ τὸ . . . ῥηθῆναι