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875. The participle ὤν is sometimes omitted, leaving a predicate adjective or noun standing by itself.

1. This occurs chiefly after ἅτε, οἷα, ὡς, or καίπερ, and much more frequently with predicate adjectives than with nouns. E.g. Ἀλλὰ γιγνώσκω σαφῶς, καίπερ σκοτεινὸς (sc. ὢν), τήν γε σὴν αὐδὴν ὅμως, “although my sight is darkened.” SOPH. O.T. 1325. Ἐφη κηρύξειν μηδεμίαν πόλιν δέχεσθαι αὐτοὺς, ὡς πολεμίους (sc. ὄντας), that no city should receive them, on the ground that they were enemies. XEN. An. vi. 6, 9. So ὡς φίλους ἤδη, Cyr. iii. 2, Cyr. 25. Αὐτὸ ἐπιτηδεύουσιν ὡς ἀναγκαῖον ἀλλ᾽ οὐχ ὡς ἀγαθόν (sc. ὄν), they practise it on the ground that it is necessary, and not on the ground that it is good. PLAT. Rep. 358 C. “ μὴν ἔτι Ζεὺς, καίπερ αὐθάδης ῾σξ. ὢν φρενῶν, ἔσται ταπεινόςAESCH. Prom. 907.

So in the genitive and accusative absolute. Ὡς ἑτοίμων δὴ χρημάτων (sc. ὄντων). XEN. An. vii. 8, 11.Ὡς ἐμοῦ μόνης πέλας(sc. οὔσης), “since I alone am near you.” SOPH. O.C. 83. Ὡς καλὸν (sc. ὂν) ἀγορεύεσθαι αὐτόν, on the ground that it is good for it (the speech) to be spoken. THUC. ii. 35. Σὺ πρῶτος, ὡς οὐκ ἀναγκαῖον (sc. ὂν) τὸ κλέπτειν, αἰτιᾷ τὸν κλέπτοντα. XEN. Cyr. v. 1, 13. Ὡς ἄρα παντὶ δῆλον (sc. ὂν) ὅτι κοινὰ τὰ φίλων ἔσται. PLAT. Rep. 449 C.

(With nouns.) Εὐθὺς, οἷα δὴ παῖς (sc. ὢν) φύσει φιλόστοργος, ἠσπάζετο αὐτόν, “as he was by nature an affectionate child.” XEN. Cyr. i. 3, 2. Αὐτοὺς εἰς τὴν πολιτείαν οὐ παραδεξόμεθα, ἅτε τυραννίδος ὑμνητάς (sc. ὄντας), since they sing the praises of tyranny. PLAT. Rep. 568 B.

2. Without the above mentioned particles (875, 1), ὤν is rarely omitted, and probably only in poetry. E.g. Τοὺς ὄρνις, ὧν ὑφηγητῶν (sc. ὄντων) ἐγὼ κτανεῖν ἔμελλον πατέρα τὸν ἐμόν, the birds, by whose guidance, etc. SOPH. O.T. 966. So 1260, and O. C. 1588. Νοεῖς θάπτειν σφ̓, ἀπόρρητον πόλει (sc. ὄν); do you think of burying him, when it is forbidden to the city? Id. Ant. 44.

3. The adjectives ἑκών, willing, and ἄκων, unwilling, omit ὤν like participles. E.g. “Ἐμοῦ μὲν οὐχ ἑκόντος,” “against my will.” SOPH. Aj. 455. Ἀέκοντος ἐμεῖο. Il. i. 301. Νικίαν καὶ Δημοσθένην ἄκοντος τοῦ Γυλίππου ἀπέσφαξαν. THUC. vii. 86. So AESCH. Prom. 771. Παρὰ τούτων οὐκ ἄν ποτε λάβοις λόγον οὔτε ἑκόντων οὔτε ἀκόντων. PLAT. Theaet. 180 C.

4. A predicate adjective or noun sometimes stands without ὤν, when it is connected by a conjunction to a participle in the same construction. E.g. Τί με οὐκ ὀλομέναν ὑβρίζεις, ἀλλ᾽ ἐπίφαντον; why do you insult me when I am not yet dead, but am before your eyes? SOPH. Ant. 839. Λόγοις δὲ συμβὰς καὶ θεῶν ἀνώμοτος. EUR. Med. 737: so EUR. Or. 457. Λύτρα φέρων καὶ ἱκέτης (sc. ὢν) τῶν Ἀχαιῶν. PLAT. Rep. 393 D. So HDT. i. 60 (ἀπολείπουσα . . . καὶ εὐειδής), and 65 (ἀδελφιδέου μὲν . . . βασιλεύοντος δέ); THUC. iii. 82 (οὐκ ἂν ἐχόντων πρόφασιν οὐδ᾽ ἑτοίμων). See other examples in Kühner, vol. ii. § 491.

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