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887. V. With λανθάνω, to escape the notice of, τυγχάνω, to happen, and φθάνω, to anticipate or get the start of, the participle contains the leading idea of the expression and is usually translated by a verb in English. Here the aorist participle does not denote time past relatively to the leading verb (unless the latter is a present or imperfect), but coincides with it in time (144). Other tenses of the participle express their usual relations of time to the verb (147). E.g. Φονέα τοῦ παιδὸς ἐλάνθανε βόσκων, “he was unconsciously supporting the slayer of his son.” HDT. i. 44. σε λανθάνει πρὸς τοὺς φίλους στείχοντα τῶν ἐχθρῶν κακά; “ are you unaware that our enemies' evils are advancing upon our friends?” SOPH. Ant. 9. Τοὺς δ᾽ ἔλαθ᾽ εἰσελθὼν Πρίαμος, “and Priam entered unnoticed by them.” Il. xxiv. 477; so xvii. 1. Μή σε λάθῃσιν κεῖσ᾽ ἐξορμήσασα, “lest the ship be driven thither before you know it.” Od. xii. 220. Φύλασσε δ᾽ γ᾽ εἰς ἐνιαυτὸν, μή λάθοι παριών. Od. iv. 526. Ῥᾷον ἔλαθον ἐσελθόντες, “they entered more easily without being noticed.” THUC. ii. 2. Ἐλάθομεν ἡμᾶς αὐτοὺς παίδων οὐδὲν διαφέροντες; “ did we never find out that all the time we were no better than children?” PLAT. Crit. 49 B. (See 147, 2.)

Ἀρχίδαμος αὐτῷ ξένος ὢν ἐτύγχανε. THUC. ii. 13. ἡγεμὼν ἐτύγχανε τεθνηκώς, it happened that the guide had died (was dead). Id. iii. 98. Ἔτυχον ἔφοροι ἕτεροι ἄρχοντες ἤδη, “there happened to be other Ephors already in office.” Id. v. 36. Ἔτυχεν ἡμῶν φυλὴ πρυτανεύουσα, “our tribe happened to hold the prytany.” PLAT. Ap. 32 B. Ἔτυχον καθήμενος ἐνταῦθα. Euthyd. 272 E. Ἐν τῷ σκότῳ γὰρ τοῦτ᾽ ἔτυχον ἔνδον λαβών. AR. Eccl. 375. Ἔτυχον παραγενόμενος ἵππον ἔχων, I came, as it happened, with a horse. Symp. 221A. Ἐς Ναύπακτον, ἣν ἔτυχον ἡρηκότες νεωστί, in Naupactus, which it happened they had lately captured. THUC. i. 103. (See 147, THUC. 1.) Ἐὰν μή τις αὐτῇ βοηθήσας θεῶν τύχῃ, “unless some God by chance comes to its aid.” PLAT. Rep. 492 A; so 495 B. Κἂν εἰ τύχοιεν ἐν τῷ παραχρῆμα κυκεῶνα πιόντες, even if they should happen to drink a κυκεών, “on the spot.” Ib. 408 B.

Φθάνουσιν ἐπ᾽ αὐτὰ καταφεύγοντες, “they are the first to run to them.” AESCHIN. iii. 248. Αὐτοὶ φθήσονται τοῦτο δράσαντες, “they will do this for themselves first.” PLAT. Rep. 375 C. Ἔφθησαν πολλῷ τοὺς Πέρσας ἀπικόμενοι, “they arrived long before the Persians.” HDT. iv. 136. Βουλόμενοι φθῆναι τοὺς Ἀθηναίους ἀπικόμενοι ἐς τὸ ἄστυ. Id. vi. 115. Φθάνει πᾶσαν ἐπ᾽ αἶαν βλάπτουσ᾽ ἀνθρώπους, i.e. she (Ate) harms men over the whole earth before Prayers can avail. Il. ix. 506. Ἔφθη ὀρεξάμενος, “he hit him first.” Il. xvi. 322. Ὁππότερός κε φθῇσιν ὀρεξάμενος χρόα καλόν, “whichever shall first hit.” Il. xxiii. 805. Ὀὐκ ἔφθασαν πυθόμενοι τὸν πόλεμον καὶ ἧκον, “no sooner did they hear of the war than they came.” ISOC. iv. 86. Φθάνουσιν (hist. pres.) ἐπὶ τῷ ἄκρῳ γενόμενοι τοὺς πολεμίους. XEN. An. iii. 4, 49.

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