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904. The participle is used with verbs signifying to see, to hear or learn, to perceive, to know, to be ignorant of, to remember, to forget, to show, to appear, to prove, to acknowledge, and with ἀγγέλλω, to announce, in a sense approaching that of the infinitive in indirect discourse. Here each tense of the participle represents the corresponding tense of the indicative or optative. (See 687.)

The participle may belong to either the subject or the object of these verbs, and agree with it in case. E.g.

Περὶ τῆς χώρας, ὅτι ἤκουον δῃουμένην, “because they heard that it was suffering from ravages.” Ib. v. 5, Ib. 7. Ὅταν κλύῃ τινὸς ἥξοντ᾽ Ὀρέστην, “when she hears from any one that Orestes is coming.” SOPH. El. 293. Πυθόμενοι Ἀρταξέρξην νεωστὶ τεθνηκότα, “learning that Artaxerxes had recently died.” THUC. iv. 50; so HDT. vi. 23. Ἐπεὶ πρὸς ἀνδρὸς ᾔσθετ᾽ ἠδικημένη. EUR. Med. 26. Ἤισθοντο τοὺς μετ᾽ Ἀριστέως ἐπιπαριόντας. THUC. i. 61. Διὰ τὴν Ἰλίου ἅλωσιν εὑρίσκουσι ἐοῦσαν τὴν ἀρχὴν τῆς ἔχθρης (see 883). HDT. i. 5. Ἐπειδὰν γνῶσιν ἀπιστούμενοι, “when they find out that they are distrusted.” XEN. Cyr. vii. 2, 17. Ἤιδεσαν Σωκράτην αὐταρκέστατα ζῶντα. Id. Mem. i. 2, Id. Mem. 14. Ἐν πολυτρόποις γὰρ ξυμφοραῖς ἐπίστανται τραφέντες. THUC. ii. 44. Διαβεβλημένος οὐ μανθάνεις. HDT. iii. 1. Ἐννοοῦμαι φαῦλος οὖσα. EUR. Hipp. 435. Ἐννοήσας γένος ἐπιεικὲς ἀθλίως διατιθέμενον. PLAT. Criti. 121 B. Τίς οὕτως εὐήθης ἐστὶν ὑμῶν ὅστις ἀγνοεῖ τὸν ἐκεῖθεν πόλεμον δεῦρο ἥξοντα; DEM. i. 15. Μέμνημαι Κριτίᾳ τῷδε ξυνόντα σε (i.e. ξυνῆσθα). PLAT. Charm. 156 A. Μεμνήμεθ᾽ ἐς κίνδυνον ἐλθόντες μέγαν (i.e. ἤλθομεν). EUR. Hec. 244.Ἐπιλελήσμεθ᾽ ἡδέως γέροντες ὄντεςBacch. 188. Ἐπιδείξω δὲ τοῦτον οὐ μόνον ὡμολογηκότα εἶναι τὸν Μιλύαν ἐλεύθερον (with six other participles, perfect, aorist, and present). DEM. xxix. 5. πόλεμος οὗτος δηλώσει μείζων γεγενημένος αὐτῶν (i.e. μείζων γεγένηται). THUC. i. 21. Εἰ φανήσεται ταῦθ᾽ ὡμολογηκὼς, παρά τε τοῦ Δημοφῶντος τὰς τιμὰς εἰληφὼς, αὐτός τε . . . ἀπογράψας, οἰκῶν τε τὴν οἰκίαν, κ.τ.λ. DEM. xxvii. 16. Εὐθὺς ἐλεγχθήσεται γελοῖος ὤν. XEN. Mem. i. 7, 2. Οὕτως ὁμολογουμένη οὖσα δούλη καὶ ἅπαντα τὸν χρόνον αἰσχρῶς βιοῦσα, “when it was thus admitted that she was a slave and was all the time living a life of disgrace.” ISAE. vi. 49. Εἰ μὴ ἐξήγγειλε προσιὸν τὸ στράτευμα, “had he not reported that the enemy was advancing.” XEN. Hell. vii. 5, 10. Ἀπηγγέλθη Φίλιππος ὑμῖν Ἡραῖον τεῖχος πολιορκῶν, it was reported to you that he was besieging, etc. DEM. iii. 4.

Compare the examples of ὁρῶ, ἀκούω, and similar verbs here given with those of the same verbs under 884, in which the participle is not in indirect discourse.

See other examples of the participle in indirect discourse under 687, where examples of the participle with ἄν may be found (see also 213-216).

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