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916. The participle in indirect discourse may be preceded by ὡς, which implies that the thought of the participle is expressed as that of the leading subject, or as that of some person prominent in the sentence. (See 864.) When this is already implied in the context, as it often is, ὡς adds only emphasis to the expression. Thus ἴσθι ταῦτα οὕτως ἔχοντα means know that this is so; but ἴσθι ὡς ταῦτα ἔχοντα means know that (as you may assume) this is so, i.e. be assured that this is so. E.g.

The force of ὡς here can seldom be well expressed in English.

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