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Chapter VI


The Participle.

821. As the infinitive is a verbal noun, so the participle is a verbal adjective; both retaining all the attributes of a verb which are consistent with their nature.

822. The participle has three uses:—first, it may express an attribute, qualifying a noun like an ordinary adjective (824-831); secondly, it may define the circumstances under which the action of the sentence takes place (832-876); thirdly, it may be joined to a verb to supplement its meaning, often having a force resembling that of the infinitive (877-919).

823. The distinction between the second and third of these classes is less clearly marked than that between the first and the two others: thus in ἥδεται τιμώμενος, he delights in being honoured, the participle is generally classed as supplementary (881), although it expresses cause (838). Even an attributive participle may also be circumstantial; as μὴ δαρεὶς ἄνθρωπος, the unflogged man (824), involves a condition. The three classes are, nevertheless, sufficiently distinct for convenience, though the lines (like many others in syntax) must not be drawn so strictly as to defeat their object.


Attributive Participle.

824. The participle may qualify a noun, like an attributive adjective. Here it may often be translated by a finite verb and a relative, especially when it is preceded by the article. E.g.

825. The participle with the article may be used substantively, like any adjective. Here it may generally be translated by a finite verb and a relative, the verb expressing the tense of the participle. E.g. Οἱ κρατοῦντες, the conquerors. Οἱ πεπεισμένοι, those who have been convinced. Οὗτός ἐστι τοῦτο ποιήσας, this is the one who did it. Οὗτοί εἰσιν οἱ ὑμᾶς πάντας ἀδικήσοντες, these are the men who will wrong you all. Πάντες οἱ παρόντες τοῦτο ἑώρων, all who were present saw this. Τὸ κρατοῦν τῆς πόλεως, the ruling part of the state.

μὴ λαβὼν καὶ διαφθαρεὶς νενίκηκε τὸν ὠνούμενον, he who did not take (the bribe) and become corrupt has defeated the one who would buy him. DEM. xviii. 247 (see 841). Τῶν ἐργασομένων ἐνόντων, there being in the country those who would cultivate it (i.e. men to cultivate it). XEN. An. ii. 4, 22. (See 826 and 840.) Παρὰ τοῖς ἀρίστοις δοκοῦσιν εἶναι, “among those who seem to be best.” Id. Mem. iv. 2, Id. Mem. 6. Ἦν δὲ μὲν τὴν γνώμην ταύτην εἰπὼν Πείσανδρος, “and Peisander was the one who gave this opinion.” THUC. viii. 68. Τοῖς Ἀρκάδων σφετέροις οὖσι ξυμμάχοις προεῖπον, “they proclaimed to those of the Arcadians who were their allies.” Id. v. 64. Ἀφεκτέον ἐγώ φημι εἶναι τῷ σωφρονεῖν δυνησομένῳ, i.e. one who is to be able to be discreet. XEN. Symp. iv. 26.

826. When the participle, in either of these constructions, refers to a purpose, intention, or expectation, it is generally future, though sometimes present. E.g. Νόμον δημοσίᾳ τὸν ταῦτα κωλύσοντα τέθεινται τουτονί, they have publicly enacted this law, which is to prevent these things. DEM. xxi. 49.See XEN. An. ii. 4, 22 in 825. ἡγησόμενος οὐδεὶς ἔσται, “there will be nobody who will lead us.” Ib. ii. 4, Ib. 5. Πολλοὺς ἕξομεν τοὺς ἑτοίμως συναγωνιζομένους ἡμῖν. ISOC. viii. 139.

See the more common use of the circumstantial future participle to express a purpose, in 840.

827.a) Participles, like adjectives, are occasionally used substantively even without the article, in an indefinite sense; generally in the plural. E.g. Ἔπλει δώδεκα τριήρεις ἔχων ἐπὶ πολλὰς ναῦς κεκτημένους, “he sailed with twelve triremes against men who had many ships.” XEN. Hell. v. 1, 19. Ὅταν πολεμούντων πόλις ἁλῷ, “whenever a city of belligerents is taken.” Id. Cyr. vii. 5, Id. Cyr. 73. Μετὰ ταῦτα ἀφικνοῦνταί μοι ἀπαγγέλλοντες ὅτι πατὴρ ἀφεῖται, there come messengers announcing, etc. ISOC. xvii. 11. Δύναιτ᾽ ἂν οὐδ᾽ ἂν ἰσχύων φυγεῖν, “not even a strong man could escape.” SOPH. El. 697.Οὐκ ἔστι φιλοῦντα ῾α λοϝεῤ μὴ ἀντιφιλεῖσθαι; Lys. 212

b) This use in the singular appears especially in θνητὸν ὄντα, one who is a mortal. This indefinite expression, though masculine, may refer to both sexes. E.g. Ἐν ποικίλοις δὲ θνητὸν ὄντα κάλλεσιν βαίνειν ἐμοὶ μὲν οὐδαμῶς ἄνευ φόβου, i.e. for a mortal (like myself) to walk on these rich embroideries, etc. AESCH. Ag. 923. Κούφως φέρειν χρὴ θνητὸν ὄντα συμφοράς, (one who is) a mortal (like yourself) must bear calamities lightly (addressed to Medea). EUR. Med. 1018.So in SOPH. Ant. 455 θνητὸν ὄνθ̓ means a mortal (like myself), and refers to Antigone, not to Creon ; she means that Creon 's proclamations could not justify her in violating the edicts of the Gods.

828. In the poets, the participle with the article sometimes becomes so completely a substantive, that it takes an adnominal genitive rather than the case which its verbal force would require. A few expressions like οἱ προσήκοντες, relatives, τὸ συμφέρον or τὰ συμφέροντα, gain, advantage, τὰ ὑπάρχοντα, resources, are thus used even in prose. E.g. ἐκείνου τεκών, his father (for ἐκεῖνον τεκών). EUR. El. 335. Τὰ μικρὰ συμφέροντα τῆς πόλεως, “the small advantages of the state.” DEM. xviii. 28. Βασιλέως προσήκοντές τινες, “certain relatives of the king.” THUC. i. 128.

829.a) The neuter singular of the present participle with the article is sometimes used as an abstract noun, where we should expect the infinitive with the article. This occurs chiefly in Thucydides and in the poets. E.g. Ἐν τῷ μὴ μελετῶντι ἀξυνετώτεροι ἔσονται, “in the want of practice they will be less skilful.” THUC. i. 142. (Here we should expect ἐν τῷ μὴ μελετᾶν.) Γνώτω τὸ μὲν δεδιὸς αὐτοῦ τοὺς ἐναντίους μᾶλλον φοβῆσον, τὸ δὲ θαρσοῦν ἀδεέστερον ἐσόμενον. Id. i. 36. (Here τὸ δεδιός, fear, is used like τὸ δεδιέναι, and τὸ θαρσοῦν, courage, like τὸ θαρσεῖν or τὸ θάρσος.) Μετὰ τοῦ δρωμένου, with action (like μετὰ τοῦ δρᾶσθαι). Id. v. 102. Τοῦ ὑπαπιέναι πλέον τοῦ μένοντος τὴν διάνοιαν ἔχουσιν (infin. and partic. combined). Id. v. 9. Καὶ σέ γ᾽ εἰσάξω: τὸ γὰρ νοσοῦν ποθεῖ σε ξυμπαραστάτην λαβεῖν. SOPH. Ph. 674 (τὸ νοσοῦν = νόσος). Τὸ γὰρ ποθοῦν ἕκαστος ἐκμαθεῖν θέλων οὐκ ἂν μεθεῖτο, πρὶν καθ᾽ ἡδονὴν κλύειν. Id. Tr. 196.

This is really the same use of the neuter singular of an adjective for the corresponding abstract noun, which is common in ordinary adjectives; as τὸ καλόν, beauty, for τὸ κάλλος; τὸ δίκαιον and τὸ ἄδικον for δικαιοσύνη and ἀδικία.

b) A similar construction sometimes occurs when a participle and a noun are used like an articular infinitive with its subject, where in English we generally use a finite verb. E.g. Μετὰ δὲ Σόλωνα οἰχόμενον ἔλαβε νέμεσις μεγάλη Κροῖσον, i.e. after Solon was gone (like μετὰ τὸ Σόλωνα οἴχεσθαι). HDT. i. 34. Ἐπὶ τούτου τυραννεύοντος, “in his reign.” Id. i. 15: so viii. 44. Ἔτει πέμπτῳ μετὰ Συρακούσας οἰκισθείσας, “in the fifth year after the foundation of Syracuse.” THUC. vi. 3. Compare post urbem conditam in Latin. Μετὰ καλὸν οὕτω καὶ παντοδαπὸν λόγον ῥηθέντα (like μετὰ τὸ . . . ῥηθῆναι). Symp. 198B. Τῇ πόλει οὔτε πολέμου κακῶς συμβάντος οὔτε στάσεως πώποτε αἴτιος ἐγένετο, i.e. the cause of a disastrous result of any war (like τοῦ πόλεμόν τινα κακῶς συμβῆναι). XEN. Mem. i. 2, 63.

c) The same construction occurs in Homer; as ἐς ἠέλιον καταδύντα, to the going down of the sum, Il. i. 601; ἅμ᾽ ἠοῖ φαινομένηφιν, Il. ix. 682.

For the peculiar use of the aorist participle here, see 149.

830. The participle is sometimes used like a predicate adjective, with εἰμί or γίγνομαι. E.g. Τί ποτ᾽ ἐστὶν οὗτος ἐκείνου διαφέρων; in what is this man different from that one (another form for διαφέρει)? PLAT. Gorg. 500 C. Συμφέρον ἦν τῇ πόλει, it was advantageous to the state (= συνέφερεν). DEM. xix. 75. Οὔτε γὰρ θρασὺς οὔτ᾽ οὖν προδείσας εἰμὶ τῷ γε νῦν λόγῳ. SOPH. O.T. 90. Ἀπαρνεόμενός ἐστι (=ἀπαρνέεται). HDT. iii. 99. δὲ ἐστὶ δέκα σταδίους ἀπέχουσα, and it (the island) is ten stades distant. Id. ix. 51.

Ἃν θέλουσα, πάντ᾽ ἐμοῦ κομίζεται, whatever she wants, she always obtains from me (for ἃν θέλῃ). SOPH. O.T. 580. Ἦν γὰρ Θεμιστοκλῆς βεβαιότατα δὴ φύσεως ἰσχὺν δηλώσας, καὶ ἄξιος θαυμάσαι, Themistocles was one who manifested, etc. THUC. i. 138. Τοῦτο οὐκ ἔστι γιγνόμενον παρ᾽ ἡμῖν; “ is not this something that goes on in our minds?” Phil. 39C. Τοῦτο κινδυνεύει πρόπον τινὰ γιγνόμενον δικαιοσύνη εἶναι, justice seems somehow to be proving to be (lit. becoming) this. Rep. 433 B.

So with ὑπάρχω and the poetic πέλομαι; as τοῦτο ὑπάρχειν ὑμᾶς εἰδότας ἡγοῦμαι, I think you may be presumed to know this, DEM. xviii. 95; ἐμεῖο λελασμένος ἔπλευ, Il. xxiii. 69.

831. On the same principle, the participle is used in all periphrastic forms with εἰμί and ἔχω for the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect. In the future perfect active, the periphrastic form is generally the only one in use; in the third person plural of the perfect and pluperfect middle and passive of most verbs, it is the only form possible. Examples of the perfect participle with εἰμί or ἦν as peculiar forms of the perfect and pluperfect, in other persons, are given in 45; of ἔχω and εἶχον with the aorist and perfect participle for the perfect and pluperfect, in 47 and 48; of ἔσομαι with the perfect and aorist participle for the future perfect, in 80 and 81.


Circumstantial Participle.

832. The participle may define the circumstances under which an action takes place, agreeing with the noun or pronoun to which it relates. The negative of such a participle is οὐ, unless it has a conditional force.

The relations expressed by the participle in this use are the following:—

833. I. Time, the tenses of the participle denoting various points of time, which is relative to that of the leading verb. E.g. Ταῦτα εἰπὼν ἀπῄει, when he had said this, he departed. Ἀπήντησα Φιλίππῳ ἀπιόντι, I met Philip as he was departing. Τοῦτο πεποιηκότες χαιρήσουσιν. Ταῦτα ἔπραττε στρατηγῶν, he did these things while he was general. Ταῦτα πράξει στρατηγῶν, he will do these things when he is general. Τυραννεύσας δὲ ἔτη τρία Ἱππίας ἐχώρει ὑπόσπονδος ἐς Σίγειον, “after a rule of three years.” THUC. vi. 59. Νῦν μὲν δειπνεῖτε: δειπνήσαντες δὲ ἀπελαύνετε, i.e. after supping. XEN. Cyr. iii. 1, 37. So vii. 5, XEN. Cyr. 78; XEN. An. vii. 1, 13.

834. Certain temporal participles, agreeing with the subject of a sentence, have almost the force of adverbs. Such are ἀρχόμενος, at first; τελευτῶν, at last, finally; διαλιπὼν (or ἐπισχὼν) χρόνον, after a while, or διαλείπων χρόνον, at intervals; χρονίζων, for a long time. E.g.

Ἅπερ καὶ ἀρχόμενος εἶπον, “as I said also at first.” THUC. iv. 64. Τελευτῶν οὖν ἐπὶ τοὺς χειροτέχνας ᾖα, “finally then I went to the artisans.” PLAT. Ap. 22 C. Ὀλίγον χρόνον διαλιπὼν ἐκινήθη, “after a little while he moved.” Id. Phaed. 118. Οὐ πολὺν χρόνον ἐπισχὼν ἧκε, after (waiting) no long time he came. Ib. 59 E Διαλείπουσαν χρόνον, at intervals (of Clotho's regular movements). Rep. 617 C. Οπως χρονίζον εὖ μενεῖ βουλευτέον. AESCH. Ag. 847: cf. χρονισθείς, Ib. 727.

835. II. Means. E.g.

Λῃζόμενοι ζῶσιν, “they live by plunder.” XEN. Cyr. iii. 2, 25. Τοὺς Ἕλληνας ἐδίδαξαν, ὃν τρόπον διοικοῦντες τὰς αὑτῶν πατρίδας καὶ πρὸς οὓς πολεμοῦντες μεγάλην ἂν τὴν Ἑλλάδα ποιήσειαν. ISOC. xii. 44. Οὐ γὰρ ἀλλοτρίοις ὑμῖν χρωμένοις παραδείγμασιν ἀλλ᾽ οἰκείοις, εὐδαίμοσιν ἔξεστι γενέσθαι, “for it is by using not foreign but domestic examples that you can become prosperous.” DEM. iii. 23. Τῶν νόμων ἄπειροι γίγνονται καὶ τῶν λόγων, οἷς δεῖ χρώμενον ὁμιλεῖν τοῖς ἀνθρώποις, which we (τινά) must use in our intercourse with men. PLAT. Gorg. 484 D. So often χρώμενος in the sense of with (cf. 843).

836. III. Manner and similar relations, including manner of employment, etc. E.g. Προείλετο μᾶλλον τοῖς νόμοις ἐμμένων ἀποθανεῖν παρανομῶν ζῆν, he preferred to die abiding by the laws, rather than to live disobeying them. XEN. Mem. iv. 4, 4. Προαιροῦνται μᾶλλον οὕτω κερδαίνειν ἀπ᾽ ἀλλήλων συνωφελοῦντες αὑτούς, they prefer to get gain by this means from each other, rather than by uniting to aid themselves. Ib. iii. 5, Ib. 16. Καὶ γελάσασα ἔφη, “and she said with a laugh.” Symp. 202B. Ἁρπάσαντας τὰ ὅπλα πορεύεσθαι, to march having snatched up their arms (i.e. eagerly). DEM. iii. 20: cf. οἷον ῥίψαντας τὰ ἱμάτια, PLAT. Rep. 474 A.

837. The following participles of manner are used in peculiar senses: φέρων, hastily; φερόμενος, with a rush; ἀνύσας, quickly; κατατείνας, earnestly; διατεινάμενος and διατεταμένος, with all one's might; φθάσας, before (anticipating); λαθών, secretly; ἔχων, continually; κλαίων, to one's sorrow; χαίρων, with impunity (to one's joy). E.g. Εἰς τοῦτο φέρων περιέστησε τὰ πράγματα, “he rapidly brought things to such a pass.” AESCHIN. iii. 82. Ὡς ἐσέπεσον φερόμενοι ἐς τοὺς Ἕλληνας οἱ Μῆδοι, “when the Persians fell upon the Greeks with a rush.” HDT. vii. 210.So οἰχήσεσθαι φερομένην κατὰ ῥοῦν, PLAT. Rep. 492 C. “Ἄνοιγ᾽ ἀνύσας τὸ φροντιστήριον,” “make haste and open the thinking-shop.” AR. Nub. 181. Κατατείνας ἐρῶ τὸν ἄδικον βίον ἐπαινῶν, “I will speak earnestly in praise of the unjust life.” PLAT. Rep. 358 D: so 367 B. See Rep. 474 A, and XEN. Mem. iv. 2, 23. Εἶτ᾽ ἀνέῳξας με φθάσας, then you opened it (the door) before I could knock. Plut. 1102: so ὅς μ᾽ ἔβαλε φθάμενος, Il. v. 119; but in such expressions ἔφθη βαλών etc. (887) is more common. Ἀπὸ τείχεος ἄλτο λαθών, “he leaped from the wall secretly.” Il. xii. 390: cf. λήθουσά μ᾽ ἐξέπινες, SOPH. Ant. 532; here again ἔλαθον with the participle is more common (see 893). “Τί κυπτάζεις ἔχων;” “ why do you keep poking about?” AR. Nub. 509. Κλαίων ἅψει τῶνδε, “you will lay hands on them to your sorrow.” EUR. Her. 270: so SOPH. Ant. 754. Οὔ τι χαίρων ἐρεῖς, “you shall not speak with impunity.” Id. O.T. 363; so Ant. 759. Τοῦτον οὐδεὶς χαίρων ἀδικήσει. PLAT. Gorg. 510 D. Compare ταξαμένους, according to agreement, Id. Rep. 416 E.

838. IV. Cause or ground of action. E.g.

Λέγω δὲ τοῦδ᾽ ἕνεκα, βουλόμενος δόξαι σοὶ ὅπερ ἐμοί, and I speak for this reason, because I wish, etc. PLAT. Phaed. 102 D. Ἀπείχοντο κερδῶν, αἰσχρὰ νομίζοντες εἶναι, “because they believed them to be base.” XEN. Mem. i. 2, 22. Τί γὰρ ἂν βουλόμενοι ἄνδρες σοφοὶ ὡς ἀληθῶς δεσπότας ἀμείνους αὐτῶν φεύγοιεν, with what object in view, etc. (i.e. wishing what)? PLAT. Phaed. 63 A. Τί γὰρ δεδιότες σφόδρα οὕτως ἐπείγεσθε; what do you fear, that you are in such great haste? XEN. Hell. i. 7, 26.

For the participle with ὡς, used to express a cause assigned by the subject of the sentence, see 864.

839.a) Here belong τί μαθών; and τί παθών; both of which have the general force of wherefore? Τί μαθὼν τοῦτο ποιεῖ; however, properly means what put it into his head to do this? or with what idea does he do this? and τί παθὼν τοῦτο ποιεῖ; means what has happened to him that he does this? E.g.

Τί τοῦτο μαθὼν προσέγραψεν; “ with what idea did he add this to the law?” DEM. xx. 127.Τί παθοῦσαι, εἴπερ Νεφέλαι γ᾽ εἰσὶν ἀληθῶς, θνηταῖς εἴξασι γυναιξίν;” “ what has happened to them that they resemble mortal women?” AR. Nub. 340.

b) These phrases may be used even in dependent sentences, τί becoming τι, and the whole phrase meaning because. E.g.

Τί ἀξιός εἰμι παθεῖν ἀποτῖσαι, τι μαθὼν ἐν τῷ βίῳ οὐχ ἡσυχίαν ἦγον; what do I deserve to suffer or pay because I did not keep quiet? i.e. for taking it into my head not to keep quiet? PLAT. Ap. 36 B. Ὅμως ἂν κακὰ ἦν, τι μάθοντα χαίρειν ποιεῖ καὶ ὁπῃοῦν; “ would they still be evil because they give us joy in any conceivable manner?” Prot. 353 D. (In cases like this, the original meaning of the participle is forgotten.) So Euthyd. 283 E and 299 A.

840. V. Purpose, object, or intention, expressed by the future participle, rarely by the present. E.g. Ἦλθε λυσόμενος θύγατρα, “he came to ransom his daughter.” Il. i. 13. Παρελήλυθα συμβουλεύσων, “I have risen to give my advice.” ISOC. vi. 1. Ἐβουλεύσαντο πέμπειν ἐς Λακεδαίμονα πρέσβεις ταῦτά τε ἐροῦντας καὶ Λύσανδρον αἰτήσοντας ἐπὶ τὰς ναῦς, in order to say this, and to ask for Lysander as admiral. XEN. Hell. ii. 1, 6. Ἐὰν εἰς πόλεμον ( πατρὶς) ἄγῃ τρωθησόμενον ἀποθανούμενον, ποιητέον ταῦτα, “even if it lead any one into war to be wounded or to perish.” PLAT. Crit. 51 B. Αὖθις δὲ ἡγησόμενος οὐδεὶς ἔσται, there will be nobody to lead us (=ὃς ἡγήσεται). XEN. An. ii. 4, 5. (This participle is also attributive: see 826.) Προσβολὰς παρεσκευάζοντο τῷ τείχει ποιησόμενοι, they prepared (themselves) to make attacks on the wall. THUC. ii. 18.

Ἔτυχον γὰρ (νῆες) οἰχόμεναι, περιαγγέλλουσαι βοηθεῖν, for some ships happened to be gone, to give notice to send aid. Id. i. 116.So ἀρνύμενοι, Il. i. 159.The present here expresses an attendant circumstance (843) as well as a purpose. See also φθείροντε, AESCH. Ag. 652.

841. VI. Condition, the participle standing for a protasis, and its tenses representing the various forms of condition expressed by the indicative, subjunctive, or optative (472). E.g. Οἴει σὺ Ἄλκηστιν ὑπὲρ Ἀδμήτου ἀποθανεῖν ἂν, Ἀχιλλέα Πατρόκλῳ ἐπαποθανεῖν, μὴ οἰομένους ἀθάνατον μνήμην ἀρετῆς πέρι ἑαυτῶν ἔσεσθαι, do you think that Alcestis would have died for Admetus, etc., if they had not believed, etc. Symp. 208D. (Here μὴ οἰομένους is equivalent to εἰ μὴ ᾤοντο.) Οὐ γὰρ ἂν αὐτοῖς ἔμελεν μὴ τοῦθ᾽ ὑπολαμβάνουσιν, for it would not have concerned them, unless they had had this idea. DEM. ix. 45. (Μὴ ὑπολαμβάνουσιν = εἰ μὴ τοῦτο ὑπελάμβανον.) Ἄστρων ἂν ἔλθοιμ᾽ ἡλίου πρὸς ἀντολὰς καὶ γῆς ἔνερθε, δυνατὸς ὢν δρᾶσαι τάδε, if I should be able to do this (εἰ δυνατὸς εἴην). EUR. Ph. 504.So the attributive participles μὴ δαρείς (824) and μὴ λαβών (825).

In SOPH. OT 289 , πάλαι δὲ μὴ παρὼν θαυμάζεται, the construction represents θαυμάζομεν εἰ μὴ πάρεστιν, we wonder that he is not here (494).

For μὴ οὐ with the participle in negative conditions, where μή is more common, see 818.

See other examples under 472.

842. VII. Opposition, limitation, or concession, where the participle may often be translated by although. E.g.

Οὗτος δὲ καὶ μεταπεμφθῆναι φάσκων ὑπὸ τοῦ πατρὸς, καὶ ἐλθὼν εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν, εἰσελθεῖν μὲν οὔ φησιν, Δημοφῶντος δ᾽ ἀκοῦσαι γραμματεῖον ἀναγιγνώσκοντος, καὶ προεισεληλυθὼς καὶ ἅπαντα διωμολογημένος πρὸς τὸν πατέρα, and this man, although he admits that he was summoned, and although he did go to the house, yet denies that he went in, etc., although he had previously gone in and arranged everything with my father. DEM. xxviii. 14. Ὀλίγα δυνάμενοι προορᾶν περὶ τοῦ μέλλοντος πολλὰ ἐπιχειροῦμεν πράττειν, although we are able to foresee few things, etc. XEN. Cyr. iii. 2, 15. Ἑλὼν καὶ δυνηθεὶς ἂν αὐτὸς ἔχειν, παρέδωκε, i.e. when he had captured it (Olynthus) and might have kept it himself, he surrendered it. DEM. xxiii. 107.

The participle in this sense is very often accompanied by καίπερ and other particles. (See 859.) This construction is the most common equivalent of a clause with although.

843. VIII. Any attendant circumstance, the participle being merely descriptive. E.g.

Παραλαβόντες Βοιωτοὺς καὶ Φωκέας ἐστράτευσαν ἐπὶ Φάρσαλον, “they took Boeotians and Phocians with them and marched against Pharsalus.” THUC. i. 111. Παραγγέλλει τῷ Κλεάρχῳ λαβόντι ᾕκειν ὅσον ἦν αὐτῷ στράτευμα, “he sends orders to Cl.to come with all the army that he has.” XEN. An. i. 2, 1. Ἔρχεται Μανδάνη τὸν Κῦρον τὸν υἱὸν ἔχουσα, “Mandane comes with her son Cyrus.” Id. Cyr. i. 3, Id. Cyr. 1. Καταδιώξαντες καὶ ναῦς δώδεκα λαβόντες τούς τε ἄνδρας ἀνελόμενοι ἀπέπλεον, καὶ τρόπαιον στήσαντες ἀνεχώρησαν. THUC. ii. 84. Μία ἐς Πελοπόννησον ᾤχετο πρέσβεις ἄγουσα, one (ship) was gone to Peloponnesus with ambassadors. Id. vii. 25. Δὸς τῷ ξείνῳ ταῦτα φέρων, “take these and give them to the stranger.” Hom. Od. xvii. 345. Βοῇ χρώμενοι, “with a shout.” THUC. ii. 84.

844. The participles ἔχων, ἄγων, λαβών, φέρων, and χρώμενος may often be translated by with: see examples in 843. (For another use of φέρων see 837.)

845. IX. That in which the action of the verb consists. E.g.

Τόδ᾽ εἶπε φωνῶν, “thus he spake saying.” AESCH. Ag. 205. Ὅσ᾽ ἡμᾶς ἀγαθὰ δέδρακας εἰρήνην ποιήσας, “what blessings you have done us in making peace!” Pac. 1199. Εὖ γ᾽ ἐποίησας ἀναμνήσας με, “you did well in reminding me.” PLAT. Phaed. 60 C.

See other examples under 150, where the peculiar force of the aorist participle in such cases, denoting the same time with the verb, is illustrated.

846. The examples show that no exact distinctions of all circumstantial participles are possible, as many express various relations at the same time. See 823.


Genitive Absolute.

847. When a circumstantial participle (832-846) belongs to a substantive which is not grammatically connected with the main construction of the sentence, both the substantive and the participle generally stand in the genitive, in the construction called the genitive absolute. E.g.

The genitive absolute was probably used at first to express time (present or past according to the tense), and afterwards the other circumstantial relations, cause, condition, concession, etc. The construction is most fully developed in Attic prose, especially in the Orators.1

848. A participle sometimes stands alone in the genitive absolute, when a noun or pronoun can easily be supplied from the context, or when some general word like ἀνθρώπων or πραγμάτων is understood. E.g. Οἱ δὲ πολέμιοι, προσιόντων, τέως μὲν ἡσύχαζον, but the enemy, as they (men before mentioned) came on, for a time kept quiet. XEN. An. v. 4, 16. So ἐπαγομένων αὐτούς, when they were called in (when people called them in), THUC. i. 3. Οὕτω δ᾽ ἐχόντων, εἰκὸς, κ.τ.λ., and things being so (sc. πραγμάτων), etc. XEN. An. iii. 2. 10. Οὐκ ἐξαιτούμενος, οὐκ Ἀμφικτυονικὰς δίκας ἐπαγόντων, οὐκ ἐπαγγελλομένων, οὐδαμῶς ἐγὼ προδέδωκα τὴν εἰς ὑμᾶς εὔνοιαν. DEM. xviii. 322. (Here the vague idea they is understood with ἐπαγόντων and ἐπαγγελλομένων.) So πολεμούντων, PLAT. Rep. 557 E.

So when the participle denotes a state of the weather; as ὕοντος πολλῷ, when it was raining heavily, XEN. Hell. i. 1, 16. In such cases the participle is masculine, Διός being understood. See AR. Nub. 370,ὕοντα” ; and Il. xii. 25, ὗε δ᾽ ἄρα Ζεύς.

849. A passive participle may stand in the genitive absolute with a clause introduced by ὅτι. If the subject of such a clause is plural, or if there are several subjects, the participle itself may be plural, by a kind of attraction. E.g. Σαφῶς δηλωθέντος ὅτι ἐν ταῖς ναυσὶ τῶν Ἑλλήνων τὰ πράγματα ἐγένετο, it having been clearly shown, that, etc. THUC. i. 74. Ἐσαγγελθέντων ὅτι Φοίνισσαι νῆες ἐπ᾽ αὐτοὺς πλέουσιν, it having been announced, that, etc. Id. i. 116.So XEN. Cyr. i. 4, 18 ; vi. 2, XEN. Cyr. 19.

850. The genitive absolute is regularly used only when a new subject is introduced into the sentence (847) and not when the participle can be joined with any substantive already belonging to the construction. Yet this principle is sometimes violated, in order to make the participial clause more prominent and to express its relation (time, cause, etc.) with greater emphasis. E.g. Διαβεβηκότος ἤδη Περικλέους, ἠγγέλθη αὐτῷ ὅτι Μέγαρα ἀφέστηκε, when Pericles had already crossed over, it was announced to him that Megara had revolted. THUC. i. 114.

So sometimes in Latin, but generally with difference in meaning: as “Galliam Italiamque tentari se absente nolebat,CAES. Bell. Civ. i. 29.


Accusative Absolute.

851. The participle of an impersonal verb stands in the accusative absolute, in the neuter singular, with or without an infinitive, when other participles with their subjects would stand in the genitive absolute.

Such are ἐξόν, δέον, παρόν, προσῆκον, πρέπον, παρέχον, μέλον, μεταμέλον, δοκοῦν, δόξαν, and the like; also passive participles used impersonally (as προσταχθέν, εἰρημένον, δεδογμένον); and such expressions as ἀδύνατον ὄν, it being impossible, composed of an adjective and ὄν; also τυχόν, perchance. E.g.

Οἱ δ᾽ οὐ βοηθήσαντες δέον ὑγιεῖς ἀπῆλθον; “ and did those who brought no aid when it was necessary escape safe and sound?” PLAT. Alcib. i. 115B. Ἁπλᾶς δὲ λύπας ἐξὸν (sc. φέρειν), οὐκ οἴσω διπλᾶς. I. T. EUR. 688. Παρέχον δὲ τῆς Ἀσίης πάσης ἄρχειν εὐπετέως, ἄλλο τι αἱρήσεσθε; HDT. v. 49. Εὖ δὲ παρασχόν, “and when an opportunity offers.” THUC. i. 120. Οὐ προσῆκον, “improperly.” Id. iv. 95. Συνδόξαν τῷ πατρὶ καὶ τῇ μητρὶ, γαμεῖ τὴν Κυαξάρου θυγατέρα. XEN. Cyr. viii. 5, 28. Εἰρημένον κύριον εἶναι τι ἂν τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ξυμμάχων ψηφίσηται. THUC. v. 30.So δεδογμένον, id. i. 125; γεγραμμένον, THUC. v. 56; and προστεταγμένον, Leg. 902 D. Καὶ ἐνθένδε πάλιν, προσταχθέν μοι ὑπὸ τοῦ δήμου Μένωνα ἄγειν εἰς Ἑλλήσποντον, ᾠχόμην. L. DEM. 12. Παρεκελεύοντό τε, ἀδύνατον ὂν ἐν νυκτὶ ἄλλῳ τῳ σημῆναι. THUC. vii. 44. Ἔγωγ̓, ἔφη Κῦρος, οἶμαι, ἅμα μὲν συναγορευόντων ἡμῶν, ἅμα δὲ καὶ αἰσχρὸν ὂν τὸ ἀντιλέγειν, κ.τ.λ. XEN. Cyr. ii. 2, 20. (See 876.) Ἀντιπαρεσκευάζετο ἐρρωμένως, ὡς μάχης ἔτι δεῆσον, “on the ground that there would still be need of a battle.” Ib. vi. 1, Ib. 26. Οἱ δὲ τριάκοντα, ὡς ἐξὸν ἤδη αὐτοῖς τυραννεῖν ἀδεῶς, προεῖπον, κ.τ.λ., i.e. thinking that it was now in their power, etc. Id. Hell. ii. 4, Id. Hell. 1.

852. Rarely the infinitive in the accusative absolute has τό; as αἰσχρὸν ὂν τὸ ἀντιλέγειν, XEN. Cyr. ii. 2, 20 (above): so v. 1, XEN. Cyr. 13; PLAT. Rep. 521 A, PLAT. Rep. 604 C.

853. Even the participles of personal verbs sometimes stand with their nouns in the accusative absolute, in all genders and numbers, if they are preceded by ὡς or ὥσπερ (864; 867). E.g. Διὸ καὶ τοὺς υἱεῖς οἱ πατέρες ἀπὸ τῶν πονηρῶν ἀνθρώπων εἴργουσιν, ὡς τὴν μὲν τῶν χρηστῶν ὁμιλίαν ἄσκησιν οὖσαν τῆς ἀρετῆς, τὴν δὲ τῶν πονηρῶν κατάλυσιν (sc. οὖσαν). XEN. Mem. i. 2, 20. Φίλους κτῶνται ὡς βοηθῶν δεόμενοι, τῶν δ᾽ ἀδελφῶν ἀμελοῦσιν, ὥσπερ ἐκ πολιτῶν μὲν γιγνομένους φίλους, ἐξ ἀδελφῶν δὲ οὐ γιγνομένους, as if friends were made from fellow-citizens, and were not made from brothers. Ib. ii. 3, Ib. 3. Ὡς τοὺς Βοιωτοὺς τὴν τῶν ὀνομάτων σύνθεσιν τῶν Δημοσθένους ἀγαπήσοντας. AESCHIN. iii. 142. Ὥσπερ ὑμᾶς ἀγνοοῦντας. Ib. 189. Μέγιστον οὕτω διακεῖσθαι τὰς γνώμας ὑμῶν, ὡς ἕκαστον ἑκόντα προθύμως τι ἂν δέῃ ποιήσοντα. DEM. xiv. 14.

854. The accusative absolute used personally without ὡς or ὥσπερ is very rare. It occurs chiefly with neuter participles which are regularly impersonal. E.g. Προσῆκον αὐτῷ τοῦ κλήρου μέρος ὅσον περ ἐμοί. ISAE. v. 12. Ταῦτα δὲ γινόμενα, πένθεα μεγάλα τοὺς Αἰγυπτίους καταλαμβάνει. HDT. ii. 66. Ἤδη ἀμφοτέροις μὲν δοκοῦν ἀναχωρεῖν, κυρωθὲν δὲ οὐδὲν, νυκτός τε ἐπιγενομένης, οἱ μὲν Μακεδόνες ἐχώρουν ἐπ᾽ οἴκου. THUC. iv. 125. Δόξαντα δὲ ταῦτα καὶ περανθέντα τὰ στρα- τεύματα ἀπῆλθε. XEN. Hell. iii. 2, 19. Δόξαν ἡμῖν ταῦτα occurs in PLAT. Prot. 314 C, where we may supply ποιεῖν, or δόξαν ταῦτα may represent ἔδοξε ταῦτα. So XEN. An. iv. 1, 13.


Adverbs connected with the Circumstantial Participle.

855. The adverbs τότε, ἤδη (τότε ἤδη), ἐνταῦθα, εἶτα, ἔπειτα, and οὕτως are often joined to the verb of the sentence in which the temporal participle stands, to give greater emphasis to the temporal relation. E.g. Ἐκέλευεν αὐτὸν συνδιαβάντα, ἔπειτα οὕτως ἀπαλλάττεσθαι, he commanded that, after he had joined them in crossing, he should then retire as he proposed XEN. An. vii. 1, 4. Πειθομένων δὲ τῶν Σαμίων καὶ σχόντων τὴν Ζάγκλην, ἐνθαῦτα οἱ Ζαγκλαῖοι ἐβοήθεον αὐτῇ. HDT. vi. 23. Ἀποφυγὼν δε καὶ τούτους, στρατηγὸς οὕτω Ἀθηναίων ἀπεδέχθη, and having escaped these also, he was then (under these circumstances) chosen general of the Athenians. Id. vi. 104.

856. Εἶτα, ἔπειτα, and οὕτως sometimes refer in the same way to a participle expressing opposition or limitation; in which case they may be translated by nevertheless, after all. E.g.

Πάντων δ᾽ ἀτοπώτατόν ἐστι, τηλικαύτην ἀνελόντας μαρτυρίαν οὕτως οἴεσθαι δεῖν εἰκῇ πιστεύεσθαι παρ᾽ ὑμῖν, it is most absurd of all that, although they have destroyed so important a piece of evidence, they should after all think, etc. DEM. xxviii. 5. Δεινὰ μέντ᾽ ἂν πάθοις, εἰ Ἀθήναζε ἀφικόμενος, οὗ τῆς Ἑλλάδος πλείστη ἐστὶν ἐξουσία τοῦ λέγειν, ἔπειτα σὺ ἐνταῦθα τούτου μόνος ἀτυχήσαις, if, although you are come to Athens, you should after all be the only one to fail in obtaining this. PLAT. Gorg. 461 E.

857. Οὕτως, διὰ τοῦτο, and διὰ ταῦτα sometimes refer in the same way to a participle denoting a cause. E.g. Νομίζων ἀμείνονας καὶ κρείττους πολλῶν βαρβάρων ὑμᾶς εἶναι, διὰ τοῦτο προσέλαβον, because I believed, etc. XEN. An. i. 7, 3. Ὑμᾶς δὲ ἡμεῖς ἡγησάμενοι ἱκανοὺς γνῶναι, οὕτω παρελάβομεν. PLAT. Lach. 178 B.

858. The adverbs ἅμα, μεταξύ, εὐθύς (Ionic ἰθέως), αὐτίκα, ἄρτι, and ἐξαίφνης are often connected (in position and in sense) with the temporal participle, although grammatically they qualify the verb of the sentence. E.g. Ἅμα προιὼν ἐπεσκοπεῖτο εἴ τι δυνατὸν εἴη τοὺς πολεμίους ἀσθενεστέρους ποιεῖν, as he advanced, he looked at the same time to see whether it was possible, etc. XEN. Cyr. v. 2, 22. Ἅμα καταλαβόντες προσεκέατό σφι, as soon as they had overtaken them, they pressed hard upon them. HDT. ix. 57. Νεκὼς μεταξὺ ὀρύσσων ἐπαύσατο, μαντηίου ἐμποδίου γενομένου, Necho stopped while digging (the canal), etc. Id. ii. 158. Πολλαχοῦ δή με ἐπέσχε λέγοντα μεταξύ, it often checked me while speaking. PLAT. Ap. 40 B. Ἐπιπόνῳ ἀσκήσει εὐθὺς νέοι ὄντες τὸ ἀνδρεῖον μετέρχονται, by toilsome discipline, even while they are still young, etc. THUC. ii. 39. Τῷ δεξιῷ κέρᾳ εὐθὺς ἀποβεβηκότι οἱ Κορίνθιοι ἐπέκειντο, the Corinthians pressed upon the right wing, as soon as it was disembarked. Id. iv. 43. Ἀρξάμενος εὐθὺς καθισταμένου, beginning as soon as it (the war) broke out. Id. i. 1. Διόνυσον λέγουσι ὡς αὐτίκα γενόμενον ἐς τὸν μηρὸν ἐνερράψατο Ζεύς, they say of Dionysus that, as soon as he was born, Zeus sewed him into his thigh. HDT. ii. 146. Τὴν ψυχὴν θεωροῦντα ἐξαίφνης ἀποθανόντος ἑκάστου, “viewing the soul of each one the moment that he is dead.” PLAT. Gorg. 523 E. Καὶ αὐτοῦ μεταξὺ ταῦτα λέγοντος Κλεινίας ἔτυχεν ἀποκρινάμενος. Id. Euthyd. 275 E.

859. The participle expressing opposition, limitation, or concession is often strengthened by καίπερ or καί (after a negative, by οὐδέ or μηδέ, with or without πέρ), or by καὶ ταῦτα, and that too. Ὅμως, nevertheless, may be connected with the participle (like ἅμα, etc. in 858), belonging, however, grammatically to the leading verb. E.g. Ἕκτορα καὶ μεμαῶτα μάχης σχήσεσθαι ὀίω. Il. ix. 655.Ἐποικτείρω δέ νιν δύστηνον ἔμπας, καίπερ ὄντα δυσμενῆ,” “although he is my enemy.” SOPH. Aj. 122. Οὐκ ἂν προδοίην, οὐδέ περ πράσσων κακῶς. EUR. Ph. 1624. Γυναικὶ πείθου μηδὲ τἀληθὴ κλύων (= μηδὲ ἢν τἀληθῆ κλύῃς). Id. Fr. 443. Πείθου γυναιξὶ, καίπερ οὐ στέργων ὅμως, “although you are not fond of them.” Sept. 712. (Here ὅμως, qualifies πείθου; although, as usual, it is joined with the participle for emphasis.) Ἀδικεῖς ὅτι ἄνδρα ἡμῖν τὸν σπουδαιότατον διαφθείρεις γελᾶν ἀναπείθων, καὶ ταῦτα οὕτω πολέμιον ὄντα τῷ γέλωτι. XEN. Cyr. ii. 2, 16.

860. In Homer, the two parts of καί . . . περ are generally separated by the participle, or by some emphatic word connected with it. Καί is here very often omitted, so that πέρ stands alone in the sense of although. Both of these uses are found also in tragedy. E.g. Τὸν μὲν ἔπειτ᾽ εἴασε, καὶ ἀχνύμενός περ ἑταίρου, κεῖσθαι. Il. viii. 125. Καὶ κρατερός περ ἐὼν, μενέτω τριτάτῃ ἐνὶ μοίρῃ. Il. xv. 195. Τέτλαθι, μῆτερ ἐμὴ, καὶ ἀνάσχεο κηδομένη περ, μή σε φίλην περ ἐοῦσαν ἐν ὀφθαλμοῖσιν ἴδωμαι θεινομένην: τότε δ᾽ οὔ τι δυνήσομαι ἀχνύμενός περ χραισμεῖν. Il. i. 586.

Κἀγώ σ᾽ ἱκνοῦμαι, καὶ γυνή περ οὖσ᾽ ὅμωςEUR. Or. 680.Τάφον γὰρ αὐτὴ καὶ κατασκαφὰς ἐγὼ, γυνή περ οὖσα, τῷδε μηχανήσομαιSept. 1037. So πέρ alone in Herodotus, as “ἀσκευής περ ἐών,iii. 131 .

861. Καίτοι was very seldom used like καίπερ with the participle, its only regular use being with finite verbs. E.g. Οὐδέ μοι ἐμμελέως τὸ Πιττάκειον νέμεται, καίτοι σοφοῦ παρὰ φωτὸς εἰρημένον. Fr. 5, Fr. 8 (ap. PLAT. Prot. 339 C). Ἱκανά μοι νομίζω εἰρῆσθαι, καίτοι πολλά γε παραλιπών. LYS. xxxi. 34.

862. Ἅτε, and οἷα or οἷον, as, inasmuch as, are used to emphasise a participle denoting the cause or ground of an action. Here the cause assigned is stated merely on the authority of the speaker or writer. (See 864.) E.g. δὲ Κῦρος, ἅτε παῖς ὢν καὶ φιλόκαλος καὶ φιλότιμος, ἥδετο τῇ στολῇ, but Cyrus, inasmuch as he was a child (as being a child), etc. XEN. Cyr. i. 3, 3. Ἅτε χρόνου ἐγγινομένου συχνοῦ, “as a long time intervened.” HDT. i. 190: in the same chapter, οἷα δὲ ἐξεπιστάμενοι. So ἅτε ληφθέντων, THUC. vii. 85. Μάλα δὲ χαλεπῶς πορευόμενοι, οἷα δὴ ἐν νυκτί τε καὶ φόβῳ ἀπιόντες, εἰς Αἰγόσθενα ἀφικνοῦνται, inasmuch as they were departing by night, etc. XEN. Hell. vi. 4, 26. Οἷον δὲ διὰ χρόνου ἀφιγμένος, ἀσμένως ᾖα ἐπὶ τὰς συνήθεις διατριβάς. PLAT. Charm. 153 A.

863. In Herodotus, ὥστε is used in the sense of ἅτε; as in i. 8, ὥστε ταῦτα νομίζων, inasmuch as he believed this. So vi. 136, ἦν γὰρ ἀδύνατος, ὥστε σηπομένου τοῦ μηροῦ. In THUC. vii. 24, ὥστε (so the MSS.) γὰρ ταμιείῳ χρωμένων τῶν Ἀθηναίων τοῖς τείχεσιν, Bekker wrote ἅτε for ὥστε, and Stahl reads ὥσπερ.

864. Ὡς may be prefixed to participles denoting a cause or ground or a purpose, sometimes to other circumstantial participles. It shows that what is stated in the participle is stated as the thought or assertion of the subject of the leading verb, or as that of some other person prominent in the sentence, without implying that it is also the thought of the speaker or writer. E.g. Οἱ μὲν διώκοντες τοὺς καθ᾽ αὑτοὺς ὡς πάντας νικῶντες, οἱ δ᾽ ἁρπάζοντες ὡς ἤδη πάντες νικῶντες, one side pursuing those opposed to them, thinking that they were victorious over all; and the other side proceeding to plunder, thinking that they were all victorious. XEN. An. i. 10, 4. Τὴν πρόφασιν ἐποιεῖτο ὡς Πισίδας βουλόμενος ἐκβαλεῖν, “he made his pretence as if he wished to drive out the Pisidians.” Ib. i. 2, Ib. 1. Συλλαμβάνει Κῦρον ὡς ἀποκτενῶν, he seizes Cyrus with the (avowed) object of putting him to death. Ib. i. 1, Ib. 3. Διαβαίνει ὡς ἀμήσων τὸν σῖτον. HDT. vi. 28. Οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι παρεσκευάζοντο ὡς πολεμήσοντες, the Athenians prepared with the (avowed) intention of going to war. THUC. ii. 7. Τὸν Περικλέα ἐν αἰτίᾳ εἶχον ὡς πείσαντα σφᾶς πολεμεῖν καὶ δἰ ἐκεῖνον ταῖς ξυμφοραῖς περιπεπτωκότες, they found fault with Pericles, on the ground that he had persuaded them to engage in the war, and that through him they had become involved in the calamities. Id. ii. 59. (Here Thucydides himself is not responsible for the statements in the participles, as he would be if ὡς were omitted.) Ἀγανακτοῦσιν ὡς μεγάλων τινῶν ἀπεστερημένοι, they are indignant, because (as they allege) they have been deprived, etc. PLAT. Rep. 329 A. Βασιλεῖ χάριν ἴσασιν, ὡς δἰ ἐκεῖνον τυχοῦσαι τῆς αὐτονομίας ταύτης, i.e. they thank him because (they believe) they have obtained this independence through him. ISOC. iv. 175. Ὡς γὰρ εἰδότων περὶ ὧν ἐπέμφθησαν ἀκούετε, for you hear them as men who (you believeknow about what they were sent for. DEM. xix. 5.

Ἔλεγε θαρρεῖν ὡς καταστησομένων τούτων εἰς τὸ δέον, he bade them take courage, on the ground that these matters were about to be settled as they should be. XEN. An. i. 3, 8. Ἐκ δὲ τούτων εὐθὺς ἐκήρυττον ἐξιέναι πάντας Θηβαίους, ὡς τῶν τυράννων τεθνεώτων, because (as they said) the tyrants were dead. Id. Hell. v. 4, Id. Hell. 9. Ἀπελογήσατο ὅτι οὐχ ὡς τοῖς Ἕλλησι πολεμησόντων σφῶν εἴποι, that he said what he did, not because they intended to be at war with the Greeks. Id. An. v. 6, Id. An. 3.So ὡς ἐπιβουλεύοντος Τισσαφέρνους ταῖς πόλεσι, on the ground that T. was plotting, ib. i. 1, Id. An. 6. Ὡς οὐ προσοίσοντος (sc. ἐμοῦ) τὰς χεῖρας, . . . δίδασκε, since (as you may feel sure) I will not lay hands on you, teach me. Id. Mem. ii. 6, Id. Mem. 32. Ὡς ἀναμενοῦντος καὶ οὐκ ἀποθανουμένου (sc. ἐμοῦ), οὕτω παρασκευάζου, “make your preparations in the idea that I shall remain and shall not die.” Id. Cyr. viii. 4, Id. Cyr. 27. Νῦν δὲ, ὡς οὕτω ἐχόντων, στρατιὴν ὡς τάχιστα ἐκπέμπετε. HDT. viii. 144.So ὡς βέβαιον ὄν, THUC. i. 2; DEM. xviii. 207.

865. It is a mistake to suppose that ὡς implies that the participle does not express the idea of the speaker or writer. It implies nothing whatever on this point, which is determined (if at all) by the context. The question whether the clause with ὡς gives the real or the pretended opinion of the leading subject is also determined (if at all) by the context.

866. Ὡς may also be used before participles standing in indirect discourse with verbs of knowing, etc. (see 916).

867. Ὥσπερ, as, as it were, with the participle denotes a comparison of the action of the verb with an assumed case. The expression may generally be translated by as if with a verb; but the participle is not felt to be conditional in Greek, as is shown by the negative οὐ (not μή). E.g. Ὠρχοῦντο ὥσπερ ἄλλοις ἐπιδεικνύμενοι, they danced as if they were showing off to others (i.e. they danced, not really but in appearance showing off). XEN. An. v. 4, 34. Τί ἐμοὶ τοῦτο λέγεις, ὥσπερ οὐκ ἐπὶ σοὶ ὂν τι ἂν βούλῃ περὶ ἐμοῦ λέγειν; why do you say this to me, as if it were not in your power to say what you please about me? Id. Mem. ii. 6, Id. Mem. 36.In both these cases, there is a comparison between the action stated in the verb and dancing or speaking under circumstances stated in the participial clause. The if in our translation is a makeshift, which we find convenient in expressing the supposed case in a conditional form, which, however, is not the Greek form. The construction is the same as when ὥσπερ takes a noun, as τὸν κίνδυνον παρελθεῖν ἐποίησεν ὥσπερ νέφος, it caused the danger to pass by like a cloud, DEM. xviii. 188; only we can translate ὥσπερ νέφος, but we could not translate ὥσπερ νέφος ὄντα.

Ὥσπερ ἤδη σαφῶς εἰδότες πρακτέον ἐστὶν, οὐκ ἐθέλετ᾽ ἀκούειν, you are unwilling to hear, as if you already knew well what should be done. ISOC. viii. 9. Ἀπήντων ὀλίγοι πρὸς πολλὰς μυριάδας, ὥσπερ ἐν ἀλλοτρίαις ψυχαῖς μέλλοντες κινδυνεύσειν, “as if they had been about to incur the risk with others' lives.” Id. iv. 86. Τὴν ἡμίσειαν εἴληφεν, ὥσπερ πρὸς τὸν Δία τὴν χώραν νεμόμενος, ἀλλ᾽ οὐ πρὸς τοὺς ἀνθρώπους τὰς συνθήκας ποιούμενος, he has taken half (of the land) as if he were dividing the country with Zeus, and not making a treaty with men. Ib. 179. Πρὸς τοῖς ἄλλοις, ὥσπερ αὐτὸς ἁπλῶς καὶ μετ᾽ εὐνοίας πάντας εἰρηκὼς τοὺς λόγους, φυλάττειν ἐμὲ ἐκέλευεν, as if he had himself spoken, etc. DEM. xviii. 276. Οἱ Ἕλληνες οὕτως ἠγανάκτησαν, ὥσπερ ὅλης τῆς Ἑλλάδος πεπορθημένης, “as if the whole of Greece had been laid waste.” ISOC. x. 49.See Id. iv. 53, ὥσπερ οὐ τοὺς λόγους ὄντας, and XEN. An. iii. 1, 14 , XEN. An. v. 7, 24 ; Mem. ii. 3, Mem. 3; Oec. ii. 7.In PLAT. Ap. 35 A, we have ὥσπερ ἀθανάτων ἐσομένων ἐὰν ὑμεῖς αὐτοὺς μὴ ἀποκτείνητε, i.e. as if they will be (like men who will be) immortal if you do not put them to death, where the future participle indicates that there is no condition (473).

The participle with ὥσπερ generally denotes attendant circumstances (843), sometimes manner (836).

868. Ὥσπερ, like any particle meaning as, can be followed by εἰ and an actual condition, the apodosis of which it represents; as in ὥσπερ εἰ παρεστάτεις, as (you would do) if you had lived near by, AESCH. Ag. 1201.A participle with ὥσπερ εἰ seems to have hardly more conditional force than one with the simple ὥσπερ; as ἐμὲ ᾤχου καταλιποῦσ᾽ ὡσπερεὶ προκείμενον, you went off and left me as if I had been laid out, AR. Eccl. 537.See ὥσπερ εἰ νομίζων, DEM. xxx. 7.

When a real condition is expressed, we generally have ὥσπερ ἂν εἰ, as in ὥσπερ ἂν εἴ τις αἰτιῷτο, DEM. xviii. 194.But when ὥσπερ ἂν εἰ (or ὡσπερανεί) is followed by a participle or a noun without a verb, it is hardly possible that either of the verbs which were originally understood with ἄν and εἰ (227) was felt as implied in the language as we find it: indeed, it would seldom be possible to supply an actual verb. Thus in ὁμοίως διεπορεύθησαν ὡσπερανεὶ προπεμπόμενοι, they proceeded as if they were under escort, ISOC. iv. 148, and in ὡσπερανεὶ ἡγούμενοι, as if they believed, DEM. xviii. 214, ὥσπερ alone would have given essentially the same sense. So in ἐφοβήθη ὡσπερανεὶ παῖς, PLAT. Gorg. 479 A, ὥσπερ παῖς, like a child, would probably have expressed the whole idea with less emphasis.


Remarks on ὥσπερ and ὡς with the Participle.

869. 1. In Homer ὥς τε, ὡς εἰ, and ὡς εἴ τε are used in a sense approaching that of ὥσπερ in Attic Greek. Ὡς here always expresses a comparison, and when εἰ is added the form must originally have included a condition; but, even in Homer, the force of εἰ had become so weakened that it is hardly possible that any actual verb was felt to be implied in the expression. E.g. Ἀχαιῶν οἶτον ἀείδεις, ὥς τέ που αὐτὸς παρεὼν ἄλλου ἀκούσας, “you sing as if you had been present yourself or had heard from another.” Od. viii. 490. Κίρκῃ ἐπήιξα ὥς τε κτάμεναι μενεαίνων, “I rushed upon Circe as if I were eager to kill her.” Od. x. 322: so x. 295. Τὸν δ᾽ γέρων ἐὺ ἔτρεφεν, ἀμφαγαπάζομενος ὡς εἴ θ᾽ ἑὸν υἱὸν ἐόντα, welcoming him as (if he had been) his own son. Il. xvi. 191. Πόλλ᾽ ὀλοφυρόμενοι ὡς εἰ θανατόνδε κιόντα, as (if he were) going to death. Il. xxiv. 327. Τίς νύ σε τοιάδ᾽ ἔρεξεν, ὡς εἴ τι κακὸν ῥέζουσαν ἐνωπῇ, “as if you were doing any evil openly.” Il. v. 373. Καπνὸς γίγνεται ἐξ αὐτῆς, ὡς εἰ πυρὸς αἰθομένοιο, as (if) when a fire is burning. Il. xxii. 149; so Od. xix. 39.

2. In Homer ὡς εἰ may have a noun without a participle. Here the comparative force is specially clear, as the difficulty of supplying a verb with εἰ is specially great: see μ᾽ ἀσύφηλον ἔρεξεν ὡς εἴ τιν᾽ ἀτίμητον μετανάστην, he made me of no account, like some dishonoured stranger, Il. ix. 648, Il. xvi. 59.So ὡς εἴ τε κατὰ ῥόον, as if down stream, Od. xiv. 254; ὥς τε περὶ ψυχῆς, as it were for my life, Od. ix. 423.2

870. The weak conditional force that appears in the Homeric ὡς εἰ with a participle or a noun (869) helps to explain the perhaps still weaker condition of ὥσπερ εἰ or ὥσπερ ἂν εἰ in Attic Greek (868).

871. The very few cases of ὡς with the participle in Homer do not indicate that ὡς had yet begun to develop its later force (864). See Od. xvi. 21, πάντα κύσεν περιφὺς, ὡς ἐκ θανάτοιο φυγόντα, he kissed him all over, like one escaped from death, though we might translate since he felt that T. had escaped from death. No such force is possible, however, in Il. xxiii. 430, ὡς οὐκ ἀίοντι ἐοικώς, appearing like one who heard not.

872. Herodotus uses ὥστε with the participle in the sense of ἅτε, although he has ὡς with the participle in the Attic sense (864). See examples under 863.

873. Ὡς εἰ (or ὡσεί) and ὡς εἴ τε appear occasionally in Attic poetry with nouns or adjectives in their Homeric sense. So ματὴρ ὡσεί τις πιστά, like some faithful mother, SOPH. El. 234; πτύσας ὡσεί τε δυσμενῆ, spurning her as an enemy, Ant. 653.

874. Ὥσπερ with the participle occasionally seems to have the same force as ἅτε or οἷον; as in EUR. Hipp. 1307, δ᾽ ὥσπερ ὢν δίκαιος οὐκ ἐφέσπετο λόγοις, inasmuch as he was just, etc. Or is the meaning here he, like a just man?

In PLAT. Rep. 330 E, ἤτοι ὑπὸ τῆς τοῦ γήρως ἀσθενείας καὶ ὥσπερ ἤδη ἐγγυτέρω ὢν τῶν ἐκεῖ μᾶλλόν τι καθορᾷ αὐτά, the same force is generally given to ὥσπερ. But it may have the comparative force: either because of the feebleness of old age, or perhaps (feeling) like one who is nearer the other world, he takes a more careful view of it,—a genitive of cause with ὑπό and a participle of circumstance being united under ἤτοι and .


Omission of ὤν.

875. The participle ὤν is sometimes omitted, leaving a predicate adjective or noun standing by itself.

1. This occurs chiefly after ἅτε, οἷα, ὡς, or καίπερ, and much more frequently with predicate adjectives than with nouns. E.g. Ἀλλὰ γιγνώσκω σαφῶς, καίπερ σκοτεινὸς (sc. ὢν), τήν γε σὴν αὐδὴν ὅμως, “although my sight is darkened.” SOPH. O.T. 1325. Ἐφη κηρύξειν μηδεμίαν πόλιν δέχεσθαι αὐτοὺς, ὡς πολεμίους (sc. ὄντας), that no city should receive them, on the ground that they were enemies. XEN. An. vi. 6, 9. So ὡς φίλους ἤδη, Cyr. iii. 2, Cyr. 25. Αὐτὸ ἐπιτηδεύουσιν ὡς ἀναγκαῖον ἀλλ᾽ οὐχ ὡς ἀγαθόν (sc. ὄν), they practise it on the ground that it is necessary, and not on the ground that it is good. PLAT. Rep. 358 C. “ μὴν ἔτι Ζεὺς, καίπερ αὐθάδης ῾σξ. ὢν φρενῶν, ἔσται ταπεινόςAESCH. Prom. 907.

So in the genitive and accusative absolute. Ὡς ἑτοίμων δὴ χρημάτων (sc. ὄντων). XEN. An. vii. 8, 11.Ὡς ἐμοῦ μόνης πέλας(sc. οὔσης), “since I alone am near you.” SOPH. O.C. 83. Ὡς καλὸν (sc. ὂν) ἀγορεύεσθαι αὐτόν, on the ground that it is good for it (the speech) to be spoken. THUC. ii. 35. Σὺ πρῶτος, ὡς οὐκ ἀναγκαῖον (sc. ὂν) τὸ κλέπτειν, αἰτιᾷ τὸν κλέπτοντα. XEN. Cyr. v. 1, 13. Ὡς ἄρα παντὶ δῆλον (sc. ὂν) ὅτι κοινὰ τὰ φίλων ἔσται. PLAT. Rep. 449 C.

(With nouns.) Εὐθὺς, οἷα δὴ παῖς (sc. ὢν) φύσει φιλόστοργος, ἠσπάζετο αὐτόν, “as he was by nature an affectionate child.” XEN. Cyr. i. 3, 2. Αὐτοὺς εἰς τὴν πολιτείαν οὐ παραδεξόμεθα, ἅτε τυραννίδος ὑμνητάς (sc. ὄντας), since they sing the praises of tyranny. PLAT. Rep. 568 B.

2. Without the above mentioned particles (875, 1), ὤν is rarely omitted, and probably only in poetry. E.g. Τοὺς ὄρνις, ὧν ὑφηγητῶν (sc. ὄντων) ἐγὼ κτανεῖν ἔμελλον πατέρα τὸν ἐμόν, the birds, by whose guidance, etc. SOPH. O.T. 966. So 1260, and O. C. 1588. Νοεῖς θάπτειν σφ̓, ἀπόρρητον πόλει (sc. ὄν); do you think of burying him, when it is forbidden to the city? Id. Ant. 44.

3. The adjectives ἑκών, willing, and ἄκων, unwilling, omit ὤν like participles. E.g. “Ἐμοῦ μὲν οὐχ ἑκόντος,” “against my will.” SOPH. Aj. 455. Ἀέκοντος ἐμεῖο. Il. i. 301. Νικίαν καὶ Δημοσθένην ἄκοντος τοῦ Γυλίππου ἀπέσφαξαν. THUC. vii. 86. So AESCH. Prom. 771. Παρὰ τούτων οὐκ ἄν ποτε λάβοις λόγον οὔτε ἑκόντων οὔτε ἀκόντων. PLAT. Theaet. 180 C.

4. A predicate adjective or noun sometimes stands without ὤν, when it is connected by a conjunction to a participle in the same construction. E.g. Τί με οὐκ ὀλομέναν ὑβρίζεις, ἀλλ᾽ ἐπίφαντον; why do you insult me when I am not yet dead, but am before your eyes? SOPH. Ant. 839. Λόγοις δὲ συμβὰς καὶ θεῶν ἀνώμοτος. EUR. Med. 737: so EUR. Or. 457. Λύτρα φέρων καὶ ἱκέτης (sc. ὢν) τῶν Ἀχαιῶν. PLAT. Rep. 393 D. So HDT. i. 60 (ἀπολείπουσα . . . καὶ εὐειδής), and 65 (ἀδελφιδέου μὲν . . . βασιλεύοντος δέ); THUC. iii. 82 (οὐκ ἂν ἐχόντων πρόφασιν οὐδ᾽ ἑτοίμων). See other examples in Kühner, vol. ii. § 491.


Combinations of Circumstantial Participles.

876. As the participle in the genitive or accusative absolute denotes the same relations (time, cause, etc.) as the circumstantial participle in its ordinary construction (833-845), both may be used in the same sentence and be connected by conjunctions. When several participles denoting these relations occur in any sentence, those which belong to substantives already connected with the main construction agree with these in case, while those which refer to some new subjects stand with these in the genitive absolute; any which are impersonal standing in the accusative absolute. E.g. Οἱ μὲν Ἕλληνες στραφέντες παρεσκευάζοντο ὡς ταύτῃ προσιόντος (sc. τοῦ βασιλέως) καὶ δεξόμενοι, they prepared themselves with a view to his (the King's) coming up and to receiving him. XEN. An. i. 10, 6. Καὶ πάντα διαπραξάμενος ἐν τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ (Κλέων), καὶ ψηφισαμένων Ἀθηναίων αὐτῷ τὸν πλοῦν, τῶν τε ἐν Πύλῳ στρατηγῶν ἕνα προσελόμενος, τὴν ἀναγωγὴν διὰ τάχους ἐποιεῖτο. THUC. iv. 29. Ἀλκιβιάδης τοῖς Πελοποννησίοις ὕποπτος ὢν, καὶ ἀπ᾽ αὐτῶν ἀφικομένης ἐπιστολῆς ὥστ᾽ ἀποκτεῖναι, ὑποχωρεῖ παρὰ Τισσαφέρνην. Id. viii. 45. Τῆς γὰρ ἐμπορίας οὐκ οὔσης οὐδ᾽ ἐπιμιγνύντες ἀδεῶς ἀλλήλοις οὔτε κατὰ γῆν οὔτε διὰ θαλασσης, νεμόμενοί τε τὰ ἑαυτῶν ἕκαστοι ὅσον ἀποζῆν καὶ περιουσίαν χρημάτων οὐκ ἔχοντες οὐδὲ γῆν φυτεύοντες, ἀδηλὸν ὂν ὁπότε τις ἐπελθὼν καὶ ἀτειχίστων ἅμα ὄντων ἄλλος ἀφαιρήσεται, τῆς τε καθ᾽ ἡμέραν ἀναγκαίου τροφῆς πανταχοῦ ἂν ἡγούμενοι ἐπικρατεῖν, οὐ χαλεπῶς ἀπανίσταντο. Id. i. 2.Here οὔσης and ἐπιμιγνύντες belong to the leading clause; νεμόμενοι, ἔχοντες, and φυτεύοντες— corresponding to ἡγούμενοι—are in the second line; ἄδηλον ὄν depends on νεμόμενοι, etc., and introduces the indirect question ὁπότε . . . ἀφαιρήσεται, which contains ἐπελθών and ἀτειχίστων ὄντων as circumstantial participles.


Supplementary Participle.

877. The supplementary participle completes the idea expressed by a verb, by stating that to which its action relates. It often approaches very near the use of the object infinitive. It may belong to either the subject or the object of the verb and agree with it in case. E.g. Παύομέν σε λέγοντα, we stop you from speaking; παυόμεθα λέγοντες, we cease speaking.

878. The supplementary participle has two uses. In one of these it corresponds to the infinitive in indirect discourse, with its tenses representing the same tenses of the direct form; and in the other it corresponds to the object infinitive in other constructions, so far as it approaches the infinitive at all in meaning. (See 746.)

Compare παύομέν σε λέγοντα, we stop you from speaking, with δείκνυσί σε λέγοντα τἀληθῆ, he shows that you speak the truth; and compare both with κωλύομέν σε λέγειν, we prevent you from speaking, and φησί σε λέγειν τἀληθῆ, he says that you speak the truth.


I. Not in Indirect Discourse.

879. I. The participle may be used with verbs signifying to begin, to continue, to endure, to persevere, to cease, to stop (i.e. cause to cease), and to permit or put up with. E.g.

Ἐγὼ δ᾽ ἦρχον χαλεπαίνων, “and I was the first to be angry.” Il. ii. 378. Ἄρξομαι ἀπὸ τῆς ἰατρικῆς λέγων, “I will begin my speech with the art of medicine.” Symp. 186B. Αὕτη οἰκίη διατελέει μούνη ἐλευθέρη ἐοῦσα Περσέων, “this house continues to be the only free one among the Persians.” HDT. iii. 83.So XEN. An. iv. 3, 2 ; DEM. xviii. 1. Οὐκ ἀνέξομαι ζῶσα, “I shall not endure life.” EUR. Hipp. 354. Ἀνέχεσθαί τινων ἐν ταῖς ἐκκλησίας λεγόντων, “to endure certain men saying.” DEM. ix. 6.So ἀνέξει λέγοντος ἐμοῦ περὶ τούτων; “ will you allow me to say?” PLAT. Rep. 613 C. With the accusative: καὶ ταῦτ᾽ Ἰάσων παῖδας ἐξανέξεται πάσχοντας; “ and will Jason endure to have his children suffer this?” EUR. Med. 74. Λιπαρέετε μένοντες, “persevere and hold your ground.” HDT. ix. 45. Οἱ δ᾽ ἐκαρτέρουν πρὸς κῦμα λακτίζοντες. I. T. EUR. 1395. Τρῶας δ᾽ οὐ λήξω ἐναρίζων, “I will not stop slaying Trojans.” Il. xxi. 224. Παῦσαι λέγουσα, “stop talking.” EUR. Hipp. 706; so 474. Τὴν φιλοσοφίαν παῦσον ταῦτα λέγουσαν, “stop Philosophy from talking in this style.” PLAT. Gorg. 482 A. α. Ἐκείνοισι ταῦτα ποιεῦσι οὐκ ἐπιτρεπτέα ἐστί, “we must not allow them to act in this way.” HDT. ix. 58. πόλις αὐτοῖς οὐκ ἐπιτρέψει παραβαίνουσι τὸν νόμον, “the city will not put up with their transgression of the law.” ISOC. xii. 170.

880. The poets sometimes have the participle with τολμάω and τλάω, to endure, to have courage, and with μένω, to await, which usually take the infinitive. E.g. Ἐτόλμα βαλλόμενος. Od. xxiv. 162. Τόλμα δ᾽ ἐρῶσα, “have the courage to love.” EUR. Hipp. 476. Τλῆναί σε δρῶσαν ἃν ἐγὼ παραινέσω, “that you take courage to do what I shall advise.” SOPH. El. 943.So πραθέντα τλῆναι, endured to be sold, AESCH. Ag. 1041; σπείρας ἔτλα, was bold enough to plant, Sept. 754. Ὄφρα μένοιεν νοστήσαντα ἄνακτα, “that they might await the king's return.” Il. xiii. 38 (compare iv. 247, μένετε Τρῶας ἐλθέμεν; ).

For the aorist participle in the last three examples, see 148.

881. II. The participle may be used with many verbs which denote a state of the feelings, as those signifying to repent, to be weary, to be pleased, displeased, satisfied, angry, troubled, or ashamed. E.g.

Μετεμέλοντο τὰς σπονδὰς οὐ δεξάμενοι, “they repented that they had not accepted the peace.” THUC. iv. 27. Τοὺς δεσμώτας μετεμέλοντο ἀποδεδωκότες, “they repented of having returned the prisoners.” Id. v. 35. Εἰ μετεμέλησέ οἱ τὸν Ἑλλήσποντον μαστιγώσαντι, “whether he repented that he had scourged the Hellespont.” HDT. vii. 54. Ἐάν τις μὴ ἀποκάμνῃ ζητῶν, “provided one is not weary of seeking.” PLAT. Men. 81 D. Τῷ μέν ῥα χαῖρον νοστήσαντι, “they rejoiced in his return.” Hom. Od. xix. 463: so Hom. Il. xviii. 259. Τιμώμενοι χαίρουσιν, “they delight to be honoured.” EUR. Hipp. 8. Χαίρουσιν ἐξεταζομένοις τοῖς οἰομένοις μὲν εἶναι σοφοῖς οὖσι δ᾽ οὔ, i.e. they delight in having them examined. PLAT. Ap. 33 C. In poetry χαίρω may have the accusative: τοὺς γὰρ εὐσεβεῖς θεοὶ θνῄσκοντας οὐ χαίρουσι, “for the Gods do not rejoice in the death of the pious.” EUR. Hipp. 1340.Σὲ μὲν εὖ πράσσοντ᾽ ἐπιχαίρωSOPH. Aj. 136. Φιλέω with nominative: φιλεῖς δὲ δρῶσ᾽ αὐτὸ σφόδρα, “and you are very fond of doing it.” AR. Pl. 645. Οὐ γάρ τίς τοι ἀνιᾶται παρεόντι. Hom. Od. xv. 335. Τῆς Αἰολίδος χαλεπῶς ἔφερεν ἀπεστερημένος, “he took it hard that he was deprived of Aeolis.” XEN. Hell. iii. 2, 13. Ὑπὸ σμικροτέρων τιμώμενοι ἀγαπῶσιν, “they are content to be honoured by smaller men.” PLAT. Rep. 475 B. Ἐλεγχόμενοι ἤχθοντο, “they were vexed at being exposed.” XEN. Mem. i. 2, 47. Τοὺς φρονίμους ἀγανακτεῖν ἀποθνῄσκοντας πρέπει, “it is right to be indignant when the wise die.” PLAT. Phaed. 62 E. Ὡς μισῶ σ᾽ ἔχων. EUR. Supp. 1108. Οὐ νεμεσῶ Ἀγαμέμνονι ὀτρύνοντι μάχεσθαι Ἀχαιούς. Il. iv. 413. Ἀδικούμενοι μᾶλλον ὀργίζονται βιαζόμενοι. THUC. i. 77. Τοῦτο οὐκ αἰσχύνομαι λέγων, I say this without shame (see 903, THUC. 1). XEN. Cyr. v. 1, 21.Αἴδεσαι πατέρα προλείπωνSOPH. Aj. 506. Νικώμενος λόγοισιν οὐκ ἀναίνομαι, I am not sorry (non piget) to be overcome by your words. AESCH. Ag. 583.Εὖ δράσας δέ σ᾽ οὐκ ἀναίνομαι,” “I do not regret that I helped you.” EUR. H.F. 1235. Θανοῦσα οὐκ ἀναίνομαι, I do not regret my death (about to come). I. A. 1503.Ἀναίνομαι τὸ γῆρας ὑμῶν εἰσορῶν,” “I am troubled at the sight, etc.” Bacch. 251. (Ἀναίνομαι, refuse, takes the infinitive: see AESCH. Ag. 1652.

882. Most of the participles of 881 denote a cause or ground of action, and might be placed under 838. (See 823.)

883. III. The participle with verbs signifying to find, to detect, or to represent, denotes an act or state in which a person or thing is found, detected, or represented. E.g. Εὗρεν δ᾽ εὐρύοπα Κρονίδην ἄτερ ἥμενον ἄλλων, “she found the son of Kronos sitting apart.” Il. i. 498.So i. 27. δὲ κῆρυξ ἀφικόμενος εὗρε τοὺς ἄνδρας διεφθαρμένους, the herald, when he came, found the men already put to death. THUC. ii. 6. Ἢν γὰρ εὑρεθῇ λέγων σοὶ ταὔτ̓, ἔγωγ᾽ ἂν ἐκπεφευγοίην πάθος, if he shall be found to tell the same story as you, etc. SOPH. O.T. 839. Καταλαμβάνουσι τὴν Ποτίδαιαν καὶ τἄλλα ἀφεστηκότα, “they find Potidaea and the other towns in revolt.” THUC. i. 59. Κακός γ᾽ ὢν ἐς φίλους ἁλίσκεται, “he is detected in baseness.” EUR. Med. 84. Ἐὰν ἁλῷς ἔτι τοῦτο πράττων, ἀποθανεῖ, if you are ever caught doing this again, you shall die. PLAT. Ap. 29 C. So PLAT. Rep. 389 D. Βασιλέας πεποίηκε τοὺς ἐν Ἅιδου τὸν ἀεὶ χρόνον τιμωρουμένους, “he has represented kings in Hades as suffering punishment without ceasing.” Gorg. 525 D. Ἄκλητον ἐποίησεν (Ὅμηρος) ἐλθόντα τὸν Μενέλεων ἐπὶ τὴν θοίνην. Symp. 174C.

It is sometimes difficult to distinguish this use of the participle from that of indirect discourse, especially with εὑρίσκω. (See 904.)

884. IV. The participle (not in indirect discourse) with verbs signifying to hear, learn (hear of), see, or perceive denotes the act which is perceived or heard of (not, as in indirect discourse, the fact that the act occurs). Here the participle approaches very nearly the ordinary object infinitive in its use, and the tenses of the participle differ only as the same tenses of the infinitive differ in such constructions, the aorist not denoting past time (148). E.g. Βαρὺ δὲ στενάχοντος ἄκουσεν, “and he heard him groaning heavily.” Od. viii. 95. Εἰ δὲ φθεγξαμένου τευ αὐδήσαντος ἄκουσεν, “but if he had heard any one call or speak.” Od. ix. 497. (The aorist participles denote the occurrence of the act, as the present denotes its progress.) Ἤκουσα δέ ποτε αὐτοῦ καὶ περὶ φίλων διαλεγομένου, I once heard him discourse, etc. (see 886). XEN. Mem. ii. 4, 1.Τοσαῦτα φωνήσαντος ῾σξ. αὐτοῦ εἰσηκούσαμεν,” “so much we heard him say.” SOPH. O.C. 1645. Ἤδη πώποτέ του ἤκουσας αὐτῶν λόγον διδόντος οὐ καταγέλαστον; PLAT. Rep. 493 D. Μεγάλ᾽ ἔκλυεν αὐδήσαντος. Hom. Od. iv. 505. Οὔ πω πεπύσθην Πατρόκλοιο θανόντος, “they had not yet heard of the death of Patroclus.” Hom. Il. xvii. 377; so 427. Ὡς ἐπύθοντο τῆς Πύλου κατειλημμένης, “when they heard of the capture of Pylus.” THUC. iv. 6. (But with the accusative, in ὅτι πύθοιτο τὸ Πλημμύριον ἑαλωκός, that he had heard that P. was captured, THUC. vii. 31, as indirect discourse. See Classen's note on iv. 6.) Οἱ τούτους ὁρῶντες πάσχοντας, “those who see these suffer.” PLAT. Gorg. 525 C. Μή σε ἴδωμαι θεινομένην. Il. i. 587.So Od. x. 99. Τῷ κέ μ᾽ ἴδοις πρώτοισιν ἐνὶ προμάχοισιν μιγέντα, “then would you see me mingle with the foremost champions.” Od. xviii. 379; so 176, ὃν ἠρῶ γενειήσαντα ἰδέσθαι, to see with a beard.Τῷ πώποτ᾽ εἶδες ἤδη ἀγαθόν τι γενόμενον;” “to whom did you ever yet see any good come?” AR. Nub. 1061. Ὅταν αὐτὸν ἴδῃ ἐξαίφνης πταίσαντα πρὸς τῇ πόλει καὶ ἐκχέαντα τά τε αὑτοῦ καὶ ἑαυτόν, “when he sees him suddenly come into collision with the state and fall overboard with all his belongings.” PLAT. Rep. 553 A. Εἰ μὴ ὤφθησαν ἐλθόντες. THUC. iv. 73. (The aorist participle with a verb of seeing is not common in prose.) Αἰσθόμενος Λαμπροκλέα πρὸς τὴν μητέρα χαλεπαίνοντα, “perceiving Lamprocles angry with his mother.” XEN. Mem. ii. 2, 1. Οὐδεμίαν πώποτε ἀγέλην ᾐσθήμεθα συστᾶσαν ἐπὶ τὸν νομέα. Id. Cyr. i. 1, Id. Cyr. 2.So also αἰσθάνομαι with the genitive: ᾔσθησαί μου ψευδομαρτυροῦντος συκοφαντοῦντος; Id. Mem. iv. 4, Id. Mem. 11. Οἶμαί σε οὐκ ἂν φάναι γενομένου ποτὲ ἐν σαυτῷ τοῦ τοιούτου αἰσθέσθαι, “I think you would not say that you ever knew such a thing to happen within yourself.” PLAT. Rep. 440 B. Τὸν δὲ νόησεν ἑστεῶτ̓, “and he perceived him standing.” Il. iv. 200.

885. The participle may be used in a similar way, having the same distinction of present and aorist (884), with περιορῶ (περιεῖδον), and sometimes with ἐφορῶ, εἰσορῶ (ἐπεῖδον, εἰσεῖδον), and even the simple ὁρῶ (εἶδον), in the sense of overlook, allow, or not to prevent. E.g.

Τοὺς ξυμμάχους οὐ περιοψόμεθα ἀδικουμένους, “we shall not let our allies be wronged.” THUC. i. 86. Μείζω γιγνόμενον τὸν ἄνθρωπον περιορῶμεν, “we allow the man to grow greater.” DEM. ix. 29. Ὑμῖν ἐπισκήπτω . . . μὴ περιιδεῖν τὴν ἡγεμονίην αὖτις ἐς Μήδους περιελθοῦσαν, “I adjure you not to see the leadership come round again into the hands of the Medes.” HDT. iii. 65. Μὴ περιίδωμεν ὑβρισθεῖσαν τὴν Λακεδαίμονα καὶ καταφρονηθεῖσαν, “let us not allow Lacedaemon to be insulted and despised.” ISOC. vi. 108. Περιεῖδε τὸν αὑτοῦ πατέρα καὶ ζῶντα τῶν ἀναγκαίων σπανίζοντα καὶ τελευτήσαντα οὐ τυχόντα τῶν νομίμων, he allowed his own father to remain in want (pres.) of the necessaries of life while he lived, and not to receive (aor.) a decent burial when he died. DIN. ii. 8. Καὶ μή μ᾽ ἔρημον ἐκπεσοῦσαν εἰσίδῃς, “do not see me driven out without a friend.” EUR. Med. 712.Μή μ᾽ ἰδεῖν θανόνθ᾽ ὑπ᾽ ἀστῶν,” “not to see me killed by citizens.” Id. Or. 746. See other examples of the aorist participle with these verbs in 148. For the infinitive, often in nearly the same sense, see 903, 6.

886. The verbs of perception included in 884 may take the participle also in indirect discourse, with the natural force of each tense preserved (see 904). With some of these verbs, the construction of the participle is generally shown by its case: thus ἀκούω and πυνθάνομαι in Attic Greek regularly take the genitive in the construction of 884, and the accusative in indirect discourse. See Ellendt, Sophocl. Lex.s.v. ἀκούω, who does not allow an exception in SOPH. Ph. 615.For the less fixed usage of Homer with ἀκούω and πεύθομαι, see Schmitt in Schanz's Beiträge, p. 9. Other verbs, as ὁρῶ, have the accusative regularly in both constructions, but the context generally makes the meaning plain: see, however, EUR. Hec. 342. Αἰσθάνομαι sometimes has the genitive, as in some examples in 884, but not in indirect discourse.

887. V. With λανθάνω, to escape the notice of, τυγχάνω, to happen, and φθάνω, to anticipate or get the start of, the participle contains the leading idea of the expression and is usually translated by a verb in English. Here the aorist participle does not denote time past relatively to the leading verb (unless the latter is a present or imperfect), but coincides with it in time (144). Other tenses of the participle express their usual relations of time to the verb (147). E.g. Φονέα τοῦ παιδὸς ἐλάνθανε βόσκων, “he was unconsciously supporting the slayer of his son.” HDT. i. 44. σε λανθάνει πρὸς τοὺς φίλους στείχοντα τῶν ἐχθρῶν κακά; “ are you unaware that our enemies' evils are advancing upon our friends?” SOPH. Ant. 9. Τοὺς δ᾽ ἔλαθ᾽ εἰσελθὼν Πρίαμος, “and Priam entered unnoticed by them.” Il. xxiv. 477; so xvii. 1. Μή σε λάθῃσιν κεῖσ᾽ ἐξορμήσασα, “lest the ship be driven thither before you know it.” Od. xii. 220. Φύλασσε δ᾽ γ᾽ εἰς ἐνιαυτὸν, μή λάθοι παριών. Od. iv. 526. Ῥᾷον ἔλαθον ἐσελθόντες, “they entered more easily without being noticed.” THUC. ii. 2. Ἐλάθομεν ἡμᾶς αὐτοὺς παίδων οὐδὲν διαφέροντες; “ did we never find out that all the time we were no better than children?” PLAT. Crit. 49 B. (See 147, 2.)

Ἀρχίδαμος αὐτῷ ξένος ὢν ἐτύγχανε. THUC. ii. 13. ἡγεμὼν ἐτύγχανε τεθνηκώς, it happened that the guide had died (was dead). Id. iii. 98. Ἔτυχον ἔφοροι ἕτεροι ἄρχοντες ἤδη, “there happened to be other Ephors already in office.” Id. v. 36. Ἔτυχεν ἡμῶν φυλὴ πρυτανεύουσα, “our tribe happened to hold the prytany.” PLAT. Ap. 32 B. Ἔτυχον καθήμενος ἐνταῦθα. Euthyd. 272 E. Ἐν τῷ σκότῳ γὰρ τοῦτ᾽ ἔτυχον ἔνδον λαβών. AR. Eccl. 375. Ἔτυχον παραγενόμενος ἵππον ἔχων, I came, as it happened, with a horse. Symp. 221A. Ἐς Ναύπακτον, ἣν ἔτυχον ἡρηκότες νεωστί, in Naupactus, which it happened they had lately captured. THUC. i. 103. (See 147, THUC. 1.) Ἐὰν μή τις αὐτῇ βοηθήσας θεῶν τύχῃ, “unless some God by chance comes to its aid.” PLAT. Rep. 492 A; so 495 B. Κἂν εἰ τύχοιεν ἐν τῷ παραχρῆμα κυκεῶνα πιόντες, even if they should happen to drink a κυκεών, “on the spot.” Ib. 408 B.

Φθάνουσιν ἐπ᾽ αὐτὰ καταφεύγοντες, “they are the first to run to them.” AESCHIN. iii. 248. Αὐτοὶ φθήσονται τοῦτο δράσαντες, “they will do this for themselves first.” PLAT. Rep. 375 C. Ἔφθησαν πολλῷ τοὺς Πέρσας ἀπικόμενοι, “they arrived long before the Persians.” HDT. iv. 136. Βουλόμενοι φθῆναι τοὺς Ἀθηναίους ἀπικόμενοι ἐς τὸ ἄστυ. Id. vi. 115. Φθάνει πᾶσαν ἐπ᾽ αἶαν βλάπτουσ᾽ ἀνθρώπους, i.e. she (Ate) harms men over the whole earth before Prayers can avail. Il. ix. 506. Ἔφθη ὀρεξάμενος, “he hit him first.” Il. xvi. 322. Ὁππότερός κε φθῇσιν ὀρεξάμενος χρόα καλόν, “whichever shall first hit.” Il. xxiii. 805. Ὀὐκ ἔφθασαν πυθόμενοι τὸν πόλεμον καὶ ἧκον, “no sooner did they hear of the war than they came.” ISOC. iv. 86. Φθάνουσιν (hist. pres.) ἐπὶ τῷ ἄκρῳ γενόμενοι τοὺς πολεμίους. XEN. An. iii. 4, 49.

888. So sometimes with διαλανθάνω and the poetic λήθω. E.g. Τοιαύτης πολιτείας μετέχειν, ἐν μὴ διαλήσει χρηστὸς ὤν. ISOC. iii. 16. Οὐδέ σε λήθω κινύμενος, “nor do I ever move without your knowledge.” Il. x. 279.

889. Κυρέω in poetry takes the participle like τυγχάνω. E.g. Τοῦτον οἶσθ᾽ εἰ ζῶν κυρεῖ; “ do you know whether perchance he is alive?” SOPH. Ph. 444. Σεσωσμένος κυρεῖ. AESCH. Pers. 503.Ταῦτ᾽ εἰρηκὼς κυρεῖ;Soph. O.C.414.Ἐχθρὸς ὢν κυρεῖEUR. Alc. 954.

So συγκυρέω in HDT. viii. 87, with the aorist participle (144): εἰ συνεκύρησε τῶν Καλυνδέων παραπεσοῦσα νηῦς.

890. Συμπίπτω (chiefly in Herodotus) and συμβαίνω may take the participle like τυγχάνω. E.g. Καὶ τόδε ἕτερον συνέπεσε γενόμενον, and this other event occurred, as it chanced. HDT. ix. 101. Συνεπεπτώκεε ἔρις ἐοῦσα, “it had happened that there was a quarrel.” Id. i. 82. Οὕτω γὰρ συμβαίνει ἅμα καὶ τῶνδε εὐγένεια κοσμουμένη. PLAT. Menex. 237 C. Πάντα ξυμβαίνει γιγνόμενα. Phil. 42C. Ὅπου ἂν ξυμπίπτῃ ἐν τῇ ψυχῇ καλὰ ἤθη ἐνόντα. Id. Rep. 402 D.

891. Θαμίζω, to be wont or frequent, may take the participle. E.g. Οὔ τι κομιζόμενός γε θάμιζεν, “he was not used to being thus cared for.” Od. viii. 451. Οὐ θαμίζεις καταβαίνων εἰς τὸν Πειραιᾶ, “you do not come down to the Piraeus very often.” PLAT. Rep. 328 C.

For examples of the aorist participle with the present or imperfect of some of the above verbs (887-890), retaining its own reference to past time, see 146.

892. As λανθάνω is active and means to escape the notice of, it must have an object expressed or understood. When none is expressed, sometimes πάντας is understood, and sometimes a reflexive referring to the subject. Thus ἔλαθε ποῦτο ποιήσας may mean either he did this without any one's knowing it (sc. πάντας), or he did this unconsciously (sc. ἑαυτόν).

893. The usual construction of λανθάνω and φθάνω (and rarely that of τυγχάνω and κυρέω) with the participle may be reversed, these verbs appearing in the participle, and what is generally the participle becoming the verb. E.g. Ἂψ ἀπὸ τείχεος ἆλτο λαθών, back from the wall he leaped secretly (for ἔλαθεν ἄλμενος). Il. xii. 390. Ὅπως μὴ ποιῶνται ἔκπλους αὐτόθεν λανθάνοντες. THUC. iii. 51. Ὅς μ᾽ ἔβαλε φθάμενος, “who took advantage of me and hit me.” Il. v. 119. Φθάνοντες ἤδη δῃοῦμεν τὴν ἐκείνων γῆν. XEN. Cyr. iii. 3, 18. Τὴν ἐσβολὴν φθάσαντες προκατέλαβον. THUC. iv. 127; so ii. 52. Ὀλίγ᾽ ἀληθῆ πολλὰ δὲ ψευδῆ λέγει τυχών, i.e. speaks at random. I. A. 957. Πλησίον γὰρ ἦν κυρῶν, “for he happened to be near.” SOPH. Ph. 371.See AESCH. Supp. 805.

894. The phrase οὐκ ἂν φθάνοις (or οὐκ ἂν φθάνοιτε), you could not be too soon, is used with the participle as an exhortation, meaning the sooner the better. The first and third persons are less common in this sense. E.g. Ἀποτρέχων οὐκ ἂν φθάνοις, “the sooner you run off the better.” AR. Pl. 1133.So HDT. vii. 162; XEN. Mem. iii. 11, 1. Οὐκ ἂν φθάνοις λέγων, “the sooner you speak the better.” Symp. 185E. Οὐκ ἂν φθάνοιμι (λέγων), I might as well speak at once. Ib. 214E. Εἰ μὴ τιμωρήσεσθε τούτους, οὐκ ἂν φθάνοι τὸ πλῆθος τούτοις τοῖς θηρίοις δουλεῦον, “the people might as well be slaves to these beasts at once.” DEM. xxiv. 143.

895. VI. The participle, with many verbs signifying to come or to go, contains the leading idea of the expression. Such verbs are οἴχομαι, to be gone, ἥκω, to have come, ἔρχομαι, εἶμι, with the Homeric βῆ, and ἔβαν or βάν, from βαίνω. Some of these uses are very peculiar. E.g. Ὤιχετ᾽ ἀποπτάμενος, “it flew away and was gone.” Il. ii. 71. Οἴχεται φεύγων ὃν εἶχες μάρτυρα, “the witness whom you had has run away.” AR. Pl. 933.Ἵν᾽ εἰδῇς οὓς φέρων ἥκω λόγους,” “that you may know the words I bring with me.” EUR. Or. 1628. Ἔρχομαι ἐπιχειρῶν σοι ἐπιδείξασθαι τῆς αἰτίας τὸ εἶδος, “I am going to undertake to show you the nature of the cause.” PLAT. Phaed. 100 B. Οὐκ ἔρχομαι ἐρέων ὡς οὕτω ἄλλως πως ταῦτα ἐγένετο, I am not going to say that these things occurred so, or in some other way (cf. French je vais dire). HDT. i. 5. Ἤιε ταύτην αἰνέων διὰ παντός, he always praised her (he went on praising her, French il allait la louant toujours: see Baehr's note). Id. i. 122. Καὶ ἐγὼ μὲν ᾖα τὰς ἐφεξῆς ἐρῶν, “and I was going to speak of them in order.” PLAT. Rep. 449 A; so 562 C. Βῆ φεύγων, “he took flight.” Il. ii. 665; so βῆ ἀίξασα, Il. ii. 167. Οὓς μὴ κῆρες ἔβαν θανάτοιο φέρουσαι, Il. ii. 302; so xix. 279.

896. VII. Herodotus uses the participle with πειρῶμαι, to try, and with πολλός εἰμι or γίνομαι, πολλὸς ἔγκειμαι, and παντοῖος γίνομαι, to be urgent; rarely with ἐπείγομαι, to press on. E.g.

Οὐκ ἐπειρᾶτο ἐπιὼν Κῦρος, Cyrus did not attempt to approach. i. 77; so i. 84, vi. 50, vii. 9. Πολλὸς ἦν λισσόμενος ξεῖνος, the stranger entreated urgently. ix. 91. Γέλων δὲ πολλὸς ἐνέκειτο λέγων τοιάδε, and Gelon spoke urgently as follows. vii. 158. Τότε παντοῖοι ἐγένοντο Σκύθαι δεόμενοι Ἰώνων λῦσαι τὸν πόρον, they begged them in every way (lit. they took every form in begging them), etc. vii. 10. Ἢν μὴ ἐπειχθῇς ναυμαχίην ποιεύμενος, if you do not press on and fight a naval battle. viii. 68 (but just below, ἢν ἐπειχθῇς ναυμαχῆσαι).

897. The participle with πειρῶμαι, πολὺς ἔγκειμαι, and ἔγκειμαι alone, occurs occasionally in Attic Greek. So also with πάντα ποιῶ and rarely with σπουδάζω. E.g.

898. VIII. Ἀποδείκνυμι, καθίζω, and παρασκευάζω, in the meaning to put into a certain condition, to render, may take the participle. E.g. Ἅμα καὶ τἀπιτήδεια μάλιστα ἔχοντας ἀποδείξειν καὶ τὰ σώματα ἄριστα ἔχοντας παρασκευάσειν, (I undertake to say) that he will at the same time make them (show them forth) best supplied with provisions, and cause them to have their bodies in the best condition. XEN. Cyr. i. 6, 18. Βλέποντ᾽ ἀποδείξω σ᾽ ὀξύτερον τοῦ Λυγκέως, “I will make you see sharper than Lynceus.” AR. Pl. 210. Ἐὰν κλαίοντας αὐτοὺς καθίσω. Eur. Ion. 535 So Cyr. ii. 2, Cyr. 14.See these verbs in Liddell and Scott.

899. IX. Ἀρκέω (and ἅλις εἰμί in poetry), to be sufficient, and ἱκανός, ἡδίων, κρείσσων, ἀμείνων, or βελτίων with εἰμί, are sometimes used in a personal construction with the participle (like δῆλός εἰμι, etc. 907), where we should expect an impersonal construction with the infinitive. E.g. Ἀρκέσω θνῄσκουσ᾽ ἐγώ, “it will be enough for me to die.” SOPH. Ant. 547. (We might expect ἀρκέσει ἐμὲ θνῄσκειν.) So ἀρκείτω δεδηλωμένον, THUC. v. 9. Ἱκανὸς ἔφη αὐτὸς ἀτυχῶν εἶναι, “he said that it was enough for himself to be in misfortune.” ISAE. ii. 7. Κρείσσων γὰρ ἦσθα μηκέτ᾽ ὢν ζῶν τυφλός. SOPH. O.T. 1368. Ἡδίους ἔσεσθε ἀκούσαντες, “you will be more pleased to hear.” DEM. xxiii. 64.So ἅλις νοσοῦσ᾽ ἐγώ (sc. εἰμί), it is enough for me to be afflicted. SOPH. O.T. 1061.

900. The X. participles βουλόμενος, ἐθέλων (poetic), ἡδόμενος, ἄσμενος, ἀχθόμενος, προσδεχόμενος, ἐλπόμενος, ἐλδόμενος (Ionic), and occasionally others, may agree in case with a dative which depends on εἰμί, γίγνομαι, or some verb signifying to come, to appear, or to happen. E.g.

Ὣς ἄρα τὼ Τρώεσσιν ἐελδόμενοισι φανήτην, “thus then did they appear to the delight of the Trojans.” Il. vii. 7. Ἐμοὶ δέ κεν ἀσμένῳ εἴη, “and I should be pleased with it.” Il. xiv. 108. Ἡδομένοισιν ἡμῖν οἱ λόγοι γεγόνασι, “we are pleased with the proposals made to us.” HDT. ix. 46. Θέλοντι κἀμοὶ τοῦτ᾽ ἂν ἦν. SOPH. O.T. 1356. Τῷ πλήθει οὐ βουλομένῳ ἦν, “it was not the wish of the majority.” THUC. ii. 3; so vii. 35. Προσδεχομένῳ μοι τὰ τῆς ὀργῆς ὑμῶν ἐς ἐμὲ γεγένηται, “I have been expecting the manifestations of your wrath against me.” Id. ii. 60; so vi. 46. Ὅτῳ ὑμῶν μὴ ἀχθομένῳ εἴη. XEN. Cyr. iv. 5, 21. Ἂν βουλομένοις ἀκούειν τουτοισὶ, μνησθήσομαι, “if these shall want to hear it.” DEM. xviii. 11. Ὅρα, εἴ σοι βουλομένῳ (sc. ἐστὶν) λέγω. PLAT. Rep. 358 D

See also τούτων πεπειραμένοις ἄν τι γένοιτο καὶ ὑμῖν, THUC. v. 111; and “ἀσμένῳ δέ σοι ποικιλείμων νὺξ ἀποκρύψει φάος” “you will be glad when spangled-robed night shall hide the light,” AESCH. Prom. 23.

Compare TAC. Agric. 18:Quibus bellum volentibus erat.

901. XI. In a similar way, the dative of any participle may be used with certain impersonal expressions which take the dative, especially those signifying it is fitting, good, pleasant, profitable, or their opposites, and those implying fear or confidence. E.g.

Εἰ τόδ᾽ αὐτῷ φίλον κεκλημένῳ (sc. ἐστίν), if it pleases him to be thus called. AESCH. Ag. 161. Οὐκ ἄξιον τούτοις πολλάκις χρῆσθαι συμβούλοις, οἷς οὐδὲ ἅπαξ ἐλυσιτέλησε πειθομένοις (sc. ὑμῖν), whom it did not profit you to obey even once. LYS. xxv. 27. Φρονεῖν ὡς δεινὸν ἔνθα μὴ τέλη λύῃ φρονοῦντι, “where it does not profit one to be wise.” SOPH. O.T. 316. Ἐπήρετο τὸν θεὸν εἰ λῷον καὶ ἄμεινον εἴη τῇ Σπάρτῃ πειθομένῃ οἷς οὗτος ἔθηκε νόμοις, “whether it was better for Sparta to obey.” Lac. viii. 5. Ἀντιπαραβάλλοντι (sc. ἐμοὶ) τὰ ἐμαυτοῦ πάθη πρὸς τὰ ἐκείνων οὐκ ἂν ἀηδὲς εἴη, it would not be unpleasant for me to compare, etc. PLAT. Ap. 41 B. Αἳ δοκοῦσι κάλλισται τῶν ἐπιστημῶν καὶ ἐμοὶ πρέποι ἂν μάλιστα ἐπιμελομένῳ, those which seem to be the noblest of the sciences, and which it would be most fitting for me to study. XEN. Oec. iv. 1. Τοῦτο καὶ πρέπειν ἐμοὶ δοκεῖ καὶ ἄξιον κινδυνεῦσαι οἰομένῳ οὕτως ἔχειν (i.e. πρέπει μοι οἰομένῳ τοῦτο οὕτως ἔχειν), it seems fitting and worth the risk for me to believe that this is so. PLAT. Phaed. 114 D. Ὧι μή ᾿στι δρῶντι τάρβος, οὐκ ἔπος φοβεῖ, one who has no dread of a deed, a word does not frighten. SOPH. O.T. 296.

So εἴ μοι ξυνείη φέροντι μοῖρα τὰν εὔσεπτον ἁγνείαν, may it continue to be my fate to bear, etc. Id. 863.

With the expressions of 901 the infinitive is more common (903, 7).


Omission of ὤν.

902. Occasionally the participle ὤν is omitted in the constructions of the supplementary participle that have been enumerated (879-901). E.g.


Infinitive with Verbs which may also have the Supplementary Participle.

903. Some verbs which take the supplementary participle allow also the infinitive in a similar construction, but with some difference in the meaning or at least in the point of view.

1. Αἰσχύνομαι and αἰδοῦμαι with the participle (881) mean I am ashamed of doing (something which I am doing or have done); with the infinitive, I am ashamed to do (something which I have not yet done). E.g. Τοῦτο μὲν οὐκ αἰσχύνομαι λέγων: τὸ δ᾽Ἐὰν μένητε παρ᾽ ἐμοὶ ἀποδώσωαἰσχυνοίμην ἂν λέγειν, this (something just said) I am not ashamed of saying; but I should be ashamed to say the following, etc. XEN. Cyr. v. 1, 21. Αἰσχύνομαι ὑμῖν εἰπεῖν τἀληθῆ, I am ashamed to tell you the truth (but still I must tell it). PLAT. Ap. 22 B. Αἰδοῦνται τοὺς παρόντας ἀπολείπειν, i.e. they are ashamed to leave them (and do not). XEN. Symp. viii. 35. But “αἴδεσαι πατέρα προλείπων,” “be ashamed of leaving your father (as you threaten to do),” SOPH. Aj. 506. A comparison of the last example with PLAT. Ap. 22 B (above) shows that the choice of the infinitive or participle may depend on the point of view of the speaker in a special case. In Aj. 506, the threat is viewed as the inception of the act.

2. Ἀνέχομαι, ὑπομένω, τλάω, and τολμῶ with the participle (879; 880) mean to endure something now going on or already done; with the infinitive, to have the courage or to venture to do something not yet done. E.g. Καταμείναντες ἀνέσχοντο τὸν ἐπιόντα ἐπὶ τὴν χώρην δέξασθαι, “they remained and had the courage to receive the invader of their country.” HDT. vii. 139. (Cf. οὐκ ἀνέξομαι ζῶσα under 879.) So ὑπομείναντα τὰ πάντα πάσχειν, “taking courage to suffer everything.” Leg. 869 C. (Cf. μὴ ὑπομένειν Ξέρξην ἐπιόντα, not to await the coming of Xerxes, i.e. not to wait to see his coming, HDT. vii. 120.) “Ἔτλα οὐράνιον φῶς ἀλλάξαιSOPH. Ant. 944.Τόλμησόν ποτε ὀρθῶς φρονεῖνAESCH. Prom. 999.

Ἀνέχομαι with the infinitive, and τλάω and τολμῶ with the participle, are rare.

3. Ἀποκάμνω τοῦτο ποιῶν (881) is I am weary of doing this; ἀποκάμνω τοῦτο ποιεῖν is I cease to do this through weariness. E.g.

Μήτε ταῦτα φοβούμενος ἀποκάμῃς σαυτὸν σῶσαι, do not, through fear of this, despair of saving yourself. PLAT. Crit. 45 B. (Cf. οὐκ ἀποκάμνεις μηχανώμενος, you are not tired of contriving, XEN. Mem. ii. 6, 35. )

4. Ἄρχομαι (Homeric ἄρχω) with the participle (879) means to be first in something, to begin with something, or to be at the beginning (not at the end); with the infinitive, to begin to do something. E.g.

Ἤρξαντο τὰ μακρὰ τείχη Ἀθηναῖοι οἰκοδομεῖν, “the Athenians began to build the long walls.” THUC. i. 107. Δεῖ ἐμὲ ἐπιδεικνύναι, ὡς οὔτ᾽ ἤρξατο λέγειν τὰ βέλτιστα οὔτε νῦν διατελεῖ πράττων τὰ συμφέροντα τῷ δήμῳ. AESCHIN. iii. 50.

5. Παύω with the participle (879) means to stop what is going on; with the infinitive, to prevent a future act. E.g. Ἔμ᾽ ἔπαυσας μάχεσθαι, “you prevented me from fighting.” Il. xi. 442. (But ἔμ᾽ ἔπαυσας μαχόμενον would be you stopped me while fighting.) Π̔αψῳδοὺς ἔπαυσε ἀγωνίζεσθαι. HDT. v. 67.

6. Περιορῶ and the other verbs signifying to overlook or see (in the sense of permit) with the participle (885) mean to see an act done without interfering to stop it; with the less frequent infinitive, to permit an act to be done without interfering to prevent it. Strictly speaking, the infinitive here expresses time future to that of the verb, while the time of the participle coincides with that of the verb. Still, both forms may sometimes be used to express practically the same sense, and may even refer to the same event, though the point of view is different. E.g. Περιιδεῖν αὐτὸν ἐν τῇ σκευῇ πάσῃ ἀεῖσαι, “to let him sing in full dress.” HDT. i. 24. Θάλασσαν πνεύματά φασι οὐ περιόψεσθαι φύσι τῇ ἑωυτῆς χρᾶσθαι, “they say that the winds will not permit the sea to follow its own nature.” Id. vii. 16. Τοὺς γὰρ Ἀθηναίους ἤλπιζεν ἴσως ἂν ἐπεξελθεῖν καὶ τὴν γῆν οὐκ ἂν περιιδεῖν τμηθῆναι, “for he hoped that the Athenians would perhaps come forth and not let their land be ravaged.” THUC. ii. 20.But in ii. 18 he has said, προσδέχομενος τοὺς Ἀθηναίους τῆς γῆς ἔτι ἀκεραίου οὔσης ἐνδώσειν τι