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Xenophon's Peculiar use of ὡς, ὡς ἄν, and ὅπως ἄν in Final and Object Clauses.


In Final Clauses.

I. (Ὡς, and ὡς ἄν.) 1. It is well known that Xenophon is almost the only writer of Attic prose who uses ὡς freely in the final constructions. Weber's statistics (p. 398) show that while ὡς is the favourite final particle in tragedy, it is hardly found in Aristophanes, Thucydides, Plato, and the Orators. Xenophon forms a strange exception to the prose usage, having ὡς or ὡς ἄν in 91 of his pure final clauses. There is nothing peculiar in his use of final ὡς with either subjunctive or optative, as it merely takes the place of another final particle.

2. In his use of ὡς ἄν in final clauses, however, several peculiarities appear, which show that Xenophon felt the original force of ὡς as a relative adverb of manner (§ 312). The following examples occur.1

a) Of eight cases of ὡς ἄν with the subjunctive, six are normal, while two show the relative force of ὡς:—

Ὡς ἂν δύνηταί σοι στρατὸς ἕπεσθαι, τῷ μέσῳ τῆς σπουδῆς ἡγοῦ,” “lead on at a medium rate of speed, that the army may be able to follow you.” Cyr. ii. 4. 28 . (The analogy of the following cases of the optative may justify the translation, lead at a rate at which the army may be able to follow you.) “Αἱ μὲν κνῆμαι εἰς μέγεθος οὐ μάλα αὔξονται, πρὸς δὲ ταύτας ὡς ἂν συμμέτρως ἔχῃ συναύξεται καὶ τὸ ἄλλο σῶμα,” “i.e. the rest of the (horse's) body grows so as to be in the right proportion to the legs.” Eques. i. 16 . These two cases are (as Weber says of those of the optative) on the line between final and consecutive sentences. The original relative and conditional force of ὡς (§ 312, 2) can here be plainly seen.

b) The original relative force of ὡς, as, is much more apparent when ὡς ἄν takes the optative in Xenophon with a potential force, especially after primary tenses. These examples occur:—

II. (Ὅπως.) Xenophon's favourite final particle is ὅπως, but there is nothing peculiar in his use of it in pure final clauses with either subjunctive or optative. He further uses ὅπως ἄν with the subjunctive like other Attic writers (see examples in § 328).

With the optative he uses ὅπως ἄν in four cases with a distinct final and an equally distinct potential force. These examples are quoted in § 330. The only other case is THUC. vii. 65.


In Object Clauses after Verbs of Striving etc.

Xenophon is more peculiar in his use of ὡς, ὡς ἄν, and ὅπως ἄν in these clauses than in pure final clauses. Here he generally uses ὅπως with the future indicative, subjunctive, and optative, and occasionally ὅπως ἄν with the subjunctive, like other Attic writers (see examples in §§ 339 and 348). But he distinctly violates Attic usage by having ὡς (in the sense of ὅπως) with both subjunctive and future indicative, and with the present, aorist, and future optative; also ὡς ἄν with both subjunctive and optative and ὅπως ἄν with the optative; and further by allowing the optative with ὡς ἄν and ὅπως ἄν to follow both primary and secondary tenses. His use of ὡς ἄν and ὅπως ἄν with the optative, especially after primary tenses, shows strongly the original relative and interrogative force of ὡς and ὅπως.

The examples of the exceptional uses are these.

Ὡς.

Ὡς ἄν with Subjunctive.

With Optative.

Ὥπως ἄν, with Optative) Three examples after primary tenses are especially peculiar.

Here belongs also Lys. 207 Eπροθυμοῦνται ὅπως ἂν εὐδαιμονοίης(349).

1 See Weber, p. 224, where the examples of the optative with ὡς ἄν are also given. Weber cites Cyr. viii. 3. 2 as an example of the subjunctive; but this section has ὡς ἂν ἐξαγγείλῃ as a relative clause, but no final clause. I have added Cyr. vii. 5. 81 and Eques. ix. 3 to the examples of the optative given by Weber.

2 See also ὡς with the subjunctive in An. iii. 1. 35 and 41; Cyr. i. 6. 24; Hell. v. 4. 33; Oec. vii. 34 (bis), Oec. xx. 4 (bis) and 16; Lac. xiv. 4; and ὡς with the optative in An. i. 1. 5; Cyr. v. 1. 18, Cyr. vi. 3. 4, Cyr. viii. 1. 42; Hell. iii. 4. 15, Hell. v. 2. 1 and 5; Ages. i. 19 and 22 and 23, Ages. ii. 31; Lac. iii. 3. This list includes all object clauses with simple ὡς not given above. All Weber's examples of these clauses in Xenophon which have ὡς with the future, ὡς ἄν with the subjunctive or optative, or ὅπως ἄν with the optative are quoted or cited in the text above, except Cyr. vii. 5. 81, which is classed with final clauses in p. 401.

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