In Object Clauses after Verbs of Striving etc.

Xenophon is more peculiar in his use of ὡς, ὡς ἄν, and ὅπως ἄν in these clauses than in pure final clauses. Here he generally uses ὅπως with the future indicative, subjunctive, and optative, and occasionally ὅπως ἄν with the subjunctive, like other Attic writers (see examples in §§ 339 and 348). But he distinctly violates Attic usage by having ὡς (in the sense of ὅπως) with both subjunctive and future indicative, and with the present, aorist, and future optative; also ὡς ἄν with both subjunctive and optative and ὅπως ἄν with the optative; and further by allowing the optative with ὡς ἄν and ὅπως ἄν to follow both primary and secondary tenses. His use of ὡς ἄν and ὅπως ἄν with the optative, especially after primary tenses, shows strongly the original relative and interrogative force of ὡς and ὅπως.

The examples of the exceptional uses are these.


Ὡς ἄν with Subjunctive.

With Optative.

Ὥπως ἄν, with Optative) Three examples after primary tenses are especially peculiar.

Here belongs also Lys. 207 Eπροθυμοῦνται ὅπως ἂν εὐδαιμονοίης(349).

1 See also ὡς with the subjunctive in An. iii. 1. 35 and 41; Cyr. i. 6. 24; Hell. v. 4. 33; Oec. vii. 34 (bis), Oec. xx. 4 (bis) and 16; Lac. xiv. 4; and ὡς with the optative in An. i. 1. 5; Cyr. v. 1. 18, Cyr. vi. 3. 4, Cyr. viii. 1. 42; Hell. iii. 4. 15, Hell. v. 2. 1 and 5; Ages. i. 19 and 22 and 23, Ages. ii. 31; Lac. iii. 3. This list includes all object clauses with simple ὡς not given above. All Weber's examples of these clauses in Xenophon which have ὡς with the future, ὡς ἄν with the subjunctive or optative, or ὅπως ἄν with the optative are quoted or cited in the text above, except Cyr. vii. 5. 81, which is classed with final clauses in p. 401.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.

An XML version of this text is available for download, with the additional restriction that you offer Perseus any modifications you make. Perseus provides credit for all accepted changes, storing new additions in a versioning system.

hide Display Preferences
Greek Display:
Arabic Display:
View by Default:
Browse Bar: