[*] 142. The perfect participle in all its uses represents an action as already finished at the time of its leading verb. E.g.
- Ἐπαινοῦσι τοὺς εἰρηκότας, they praise those who have spoken.
- Ἐπῄνεσαν τοὺς εἰρηκότας, they praised those who had spoken.
- Ἐπαινέσουσι τοὺς εἰρηκότας, they will praise those who will (then) have spoken.
- “Ἐπέδειξα οὐδὲν ἀληθὲς ἀπηγγελκότα （ Αἰσχίνην ）,” “I showed that Aeschines had announced nothing that was true (i.e. I showed, οὐδὲν ἀληθὲς ἀπήγγελκεν）.” DEM. xix. 177.
- “Τοὺς δεσμώτας μετεμέλοντο ἀποδεδωκότες,” “they repented of having restored the captives.” THUC. v. 35.
- “Τῆς Αἰολίδος χαλεπῶς ἔφερεν ἀπεστερημένος,” “he took it hard that he had been deprived of Aeolis.” XEN. Hell. iii. 2, 13.