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155. These tenses give a more vivid statement of general truths, by employing a distinct case or several distinct cases in the past to represent (as it were) all possible cases, and implying that what has occurred is likely to occur again under similar circumstances. E.g. “Κάτθαν᾽ ὁμῶς τ᾽ ἀεργὸς ἀνὴρ τε πολλὰ ἐοργώς,” “the idle man and he who has laboured much alike must die.” Il. ix. 320.Ὅστε καὶ ἄλκιμον ἄνδρα φοβεῖ καὶ ἀφείλετο νίκην,” “who terrifies even a valiant man and snatches his victory away.” Il. xvii. 177 (see 157, below). “Βία καὶ μεγάλαυχον ἔσφαλεν ἐν χρόνῳPIND. Py. viii. 15. . “Σοφοὶ δὲ μέλλοντα τριταῖον ἄνεμον ἔμαθον, οὐδ᾽ ὑπὸ κέρδει βλάβεν Nem. vii. 17. . “Καὶ δὴ φίλον τις ἔκταν᾽ ἀγνοίας ὕπο,” “and now one may kill a friend through ignorance.” AESCH. Supp. 499.Ἀλλὰ τὰ τοιαῦτα εἰς μὲν ἅπαξ καὶ βραχὺν χρόνον ἀντέχει, καὶ σφόδρα γε ἤνθησεν ἐπὶ ταῖς ἐλπίσιν, ἂν τύχῃ, τῷ χρόνῳ δὲ φωρᾶται καὶ περὶ αὑτὰ καταρρεῖDEM. ii. 10 (see 157 and 171). “Ἢν ἄρα σφαλῶσιν, ἀντελπίσαντες ἄλλα ἐπλήρωσαν τὴν χρείαν,” “they supply the deficiency (as often as one occurs).” THUC. i. 70.Ἢν δέ τις τούτων τι παραβαίνῃ, ζημίαν αὐτοῖς ἐπέθεσαν,” “they impose a penalty upon every one who transgresses.” XEN. Cyr. i. 2, 2.Δεινῶν τ᾽ ἄημα πνευμάτων ἐκοίμισε στένοντα πόντονSOPH. Aj. 674.Μί᾽ ἡμέρα τὸν μὲν καθεῖλεν ὑψόθεν, τὸν δ᾽ ἦρ᾽ ἄνωEUR. Fr. 424.Ὅταν Ἔρως ἐγκρατέστερος γένηται, διαφθείρει τε πολλὰ καὶ ἠδίκησεν Symp. 188A.Ὅταν τις ὥσπερ οὗτος ἰσχύσῃ, πρώτη πρόφασις καὶ μικρὸν πταῖσμα ἅπαντα ἀνεχαίτισε καὶ διέλυσενDEM. ii. 9.

Ἐπειδάν τις παρ᾽ ἐμοῦ μάθῃ, ἐὰν μὲν βούληται, ἀποδέδωκεν ἐγὼ πράττομαι ἀργύριον: ἐὰν δὲ μὴ, ἐλθὼν εἰς ἱερὸν ὀμόσας, ὅσου ἂν φῇ ἄξια εἶναι τὰ μαθήματα, τοσοῦτον κατέθηκεν. PLAT. Prot. 328B. (Here the perfect and aorist, according to the MSS., are used in nearly the same sense, he pays. But Sauppe reads ἀπέδωκεν for ἀποδέδωκεν.) Πολλοὶ διὰ δόξαν καὶ πολιτικὴν δύναμιν μεγάλα κακὰ πεπόνθασιν, i.e. many always have suffered, and many do suffer. XEN. Mem. iv. 2, 35. Τὸ δὲ μὴ ἐμποδὼν ἀνανταγωνίστῳ εὐνοίᾳ τετίμηται. THUC. ii. 45.

The gnomic perfect is not found in Homer.

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