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188. The present infinitive and participle representing the imperfect (without ἄν), and the perfect representing the pluperfect, are secondary tenses in themselves, without regard to the leading verb. E.g. Πῶς γὰρ οἴεσθε δυσχερῶς ἀκούειν, εἴ τίς τι λέγοι; how unwillingly do you think they heard it, when any one said anything? DEM. vi. 20.So PLAT. Rep. 430A. See these and other examples under 119.

For the perfect see XEN. Cyr. i. 4, 27 , and THUC. v. 49, under 123.

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