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287. The first person of the subjunctive is used in questions of appeal, where the speaker asks himself or another what he is to do. The negative is μή. In Attic Greek this subjunctive is often introduced by βούλει or βούλεσθε, sometimes in poetry by θέλεις or θέλετε. E.g. Εἴπω τοῦτο; shall I say this? or βούλει εἴπω τοῦτο; do you wish that I should say this? Μὴ τοῦτο ποιῶμεν (or ποιήσωμεν; shall we not do this? Τί εἴπω; or τί βούλεσθε εἴπω; what shall I say? or what do you want me to say?

Πῇ τ᾽ ἄρ᾽ ἐγὼ, φίλε τέκνον, ἴω; τεῦ δώμαθ᾽ ἵκωμαι; ἰθὺς σῆς μητρὸς ἴω καὶ σοῖο δόμοιο;” “whither shall I go? to whose house shall I come? etc.” Od. xv. 509. αὐτὸς κεύθω; φάσθαι δέ με θυμὸς ἀνώγειOd. xxi. 194. Ζεῦ, τί λέξω; ποῖ φρενῶν ἔλθω, πάτερ;SOPH. O.C. 310. Ὤμοι ἐγὼ, πᾶ βῶ; πᾶ στῶ; πᾶ κέλσω; EUR. Hec. 1056. Ποῖ τράπωμαι; ποῖ πορευθῶ; Ib. 1099. Εἴπω τι τῶν εἰωθότων, δέσποτα; “ shall I make one of the regular jokes?” AR. Ran. 1. Τίνα γὰρ μάρτυρα μείζω παράσχωμαι; i.e. how shall I bring forward a greater witness? DEM. xix. 240. Μηδ̓, ἐάν τι ὠνῶμαι, ἔρωμαι ὁπόσου πωλεῖ; may I not ask, etc.? Μηδ᾽ ἀποκρίνωμαι οὖν, ἄν τίς με ἐρωτᾷ νέος, ἐὰν εἰδῶ; and may I not answer, etc.? XEN. Mem. i. 2, 36. Μὴ ἀποκρίνωμαι, ἀλλ᾽ ἕτερον εἴπω; PLAT. Rep. 337B. So μὴ φῶμεν; Ib. 554B Μισθωσώμεθα οὖν κήρυκα, αὐτὸς ἀνείπω; Ib. 580B. Μεθύοντα ἄνδρα πάνυ σφόδρα δέξεσθε συμπότην, ἀπίωμεν; “ will you receive him, or shall we go away?” Symp. 212E. Ἆρα μὴ αἰς χυνθῶμεν τὸν Περσῶν βασιλέα μιμήσασθαι; “ shall we then be ashamed to imitate the king of the Persians? —we shall not be ashamed; shall we?” XEN. Oec. iv. 4.

Ποῦ δὴ βούλει καθιζόμενοι ἀναγνῶμεν;” “where wilt thou that we sit down and read?” PLAT. Phaedr. 228E. (So ib. 263 E.) Βούλει οὖν ἐπισκοπῶμεν ὅπου ἤδη τὸ δυνατόν ἐστι; XEN. Mem. iii. 5, 1. Βούλει λάβωμαι δῆτα καὶ θίγω τί σου; SOPH. Phil. 761. Βούλεσθ᾽ ἐπεισπέσωμεν; EUR. Hec. 1042. Θέλεις μείνωμεν αὐτοῦ κἀνακούσωμεν γόων; SOPH. El. 81. Τί σοι θέλεις δῆτ᾽ εἰκάθω; Id. O.T. 650.Θέλετε θηρασώμεθα Πενθέως Ἀγαύην μητέρ᾽ ἐκ βακχευμάτων, χάριν τ᾽ ἄνακτι θῶμεν;EUR. Bacch. 719.Βούλεσθε τὸ ὅλον πρᾶγμα ἀφῶμεν καὶ μὴ ζητῶμεν;AESCHIN. i. 73.

So with κελεύετε: Ἀλλὰ πῶς; εἴπω κελεύετε καὶ οὐκ ὀργιεῖσθε; do you command me to speak, and will you not be angry? DEM. ix. 46.

In PLAT. Rep. 372 E, we find εἰ δ᾽ αὖ βούλεσθε καὶ φλεγμαίνουσαν πόλιν θεωρήσωμεν, οὐδὲν ἀποκωλύει, but if, again, you will have us examine an inflamed state, there is nothing to prevent. This shows that βούλεσθε is not parenthetical, but is felt to be the leading verb on which the subjunctive depends (see 288). In Phaed. 95E, ἵνα μή τι διαφύγῃ ἡμᾶς, εἴ τέ τι βούλει προσθῇς ἀφέλῃς, the subjunctives may depend on ἵνα.

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    • William Watson Goodwin, Commentary on Demosthenes: On the Crown, 180
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