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313.Ὅπως.) 1. Ὅπως is related to ὡς as ὁπότε to ὅτε, being the adverb of the relative stem ὁ- and the indefinite stem πο- combined.1 Like ὡς, it is originally a relative adverb, meaning as; and it can always be used in this sense, as in οὕτως ὅπως δύνανται, thus as they can, THUC. vii. 67.Then it is used in indirect questions, in the sense of ὅτῳ τρόπῳ, how, in what way, and is followed by the future indicative; as σκοπεῖν ὅπως πόλις σωθήσεται, to see how the city can be saved. So τοῖς γεγενημένοις πονηροῖς, ὅπως μὴ δώσουσι δίκην, ὁδὸν δείκνυσι, he shows those who have been rascals how they can avoid suffering punishment (= ὅτῳ τρόπῳ μὴ δώσουσι), DEM. xxiv. 106.Then, by a slight modification in sense, it may denote also the object to which the striving, etc., is directed; so that σκοπεῖν (or σκοπεῖν τοῦτο) ὅπως πόλις σωθήσεται may mean to see (to this, viz.) that the city shall be saved. Here, however, the subjunctive is sometimes allowed, as the interrogative force of ὅπως is lost sight of and its force as a final particle, in order that, begins to appear. From this it becomes established as a final particle, and denotes the purpose in ordinary final clauses. From the original force of ὅπως as a relative, used in indirect questions in the sense of how, we must explain its occasional use in indirect questions in the sense of ὡς (706).

The interrogative force of ὅπως can be seen from passages in which other interrogative words take its place in the same sense; as DEM. xvi. 19, σκοπεῖν ἐξ ὅτου τρόπου μὴ γενήσονται (φίλοι), to see in what way they can be prevented from becoming friends; and THUC. i. 65, ἔπρασσεν ὅπῃ ὠφελία τις γενήσεται, he negotiated to have some help come (how some help should come). So THUC. iv. 128, ἔπρασσεν ὅτῳ τρόπῳ τάχιστα τοῖς μὲν ξυμβήσεται τῶν δὲ ἀπαλλάξεται.2

2. Although ὅπως is fully established in the Homeric language, both in its half-interrogative use after verbs of planning, etc. (341), and also in its final sense, it seldom occurs in Homer in either construction. It first becomes frequent in the Attic poets. In Thucydides and Xenophon it is the most common final particle; and in these writers, as in tragedy, its final use greatly exceeds its use in object clauses. The latter, however, far exceeds the final use in Herodotus, Plato, and the orators; but here ἵνα has gained almost undisputed possession of the field as a final particle.

3. Ὅπως never takes κέ or αν in pure final clauses in Homer. Ὅπως ἄν with the subjunctive appears for the first time in final clauses in Aeschylus (328), and afterwards maintains itself vigorously by the side of the simple ὅπως. In object clauses ὅπως κε with the subjunctive is found in a few places in Homer, and ὅπως ἄν in a few in the Attic poets, while ὅπως ἄν in these clauses in prose is found chiefly in Plato and Xenophon (348).

1 See Delbrück, Conj.u. Opt.p. 61.

2 See Madvig's Syntax, § 123.

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