[*] 35. The imperfect is thus a present transferred to the past, retaining all the peculiarities of the present which are consistent with the change. Thus it may denote a customary or repeated action, or a series of actions; or, if it refers to a single action (as it very frequently does), it represents it in its progress rather than as a simple past occurrence (like the aorist). In narration it dwells on the course of an event instead of merely stating its occurrence. E.g.
- “Ἐπὶ Κέκροπος ἡ Ἀττικὴ κατὰ πόλεις ᾠκεῖτο, καὶ οὐ ξυνῄεσαν βουλευσόμενοι, ἀλλ᾽ αὐτοὶ ἕκαστοι ἐπολιτεύοντο καὶ ἐβουλεύοντο. Ἐπειδὴ δὲ Θησεὺς ἐβασίλευσεν, ἐς τὴν νῦν πόλιν οὖσαν ξυνῴκισε πάντας.” THUC. ii. 15. (Here the imperfects refer to the state of the country or to customs; the aorists state events, ἐβασίλευσε, became king, ξυνῴκισε, collected into one state.）
- “Καὶ παραστὰς ὁ μὲν ἔνθεν ὁ δ᾽ ἔνθεν, ἐβόων, ἐξέκρουόν με, τελευτῶντες ἐχλεύαζον: ὑμεῖς δ᾽ ἐγελᾶτε, καὶ οὔτ᾽ ἀκούειν ἠθέλετε οὔτε πιστεύειν ἐβούλεσθε,” “they kept on shouting, etc.,and you laughed, etc.” DEM. xix. 23.
- “Ἐπειρώμην τι λέγειν τούτων ὧν εἰς τὴν βούλην ἀπήγγειλα.” Ibid.
- “Πότερον ταῦτα πάντα ποιῶν ἠδίκει καὶ παρεσπόνδει καὶ ἔλυε τὴν εἰρήνην ἢ οὔ;” “in doing all these things was he acting unjustly and breaking the peace, etc.?” Id. xviii. 71 ; see also ib. 69. (Compare τὴν εἰρήνην ἔλυσε τὰ πλοῖα λαβών, of the event, ib. 73.）
- “Παρελθὼν ἐπὶ Θρᾴκης Βυζαντίους ἠξίου συμπολεμεῖν.” Ib. 87.
- “Ὑμεῖς γὰρ ταῦτ᾽ ἐπράττετε, καὶ ταῦτα πᾶσιν ὑμῖν ἤρεσκεν. ῾οφ α ξουρσε οφ αξτιον̓” Id. xix. 189.
- “Ἐπειδὴ γὰρ εἷλεν Ὄλυνθον Φίλιππος, Ὀλύμπια ἐποίει, εἰς δὲ τὴν θυσίαν πάντας τοὺς τεχνίτας συνήγαγεν.” Ib. 192. “Εἶτα τότ᾽ οὐκ ἔλεγες παραχρῆμα ταῦτα οὐδ᾽ ἐδίδασκες ἡμᾶς;” “did you then not tell this at once on the spot, or instruct us?” Ib. 25.