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422. 1. In the following examples the idea of the infinitive is so modified by that of the leading verb, that the real apodosis (the opposite of which is implied) includes both ideas; but the chief force still remains in the infinitive, so that no ἄν is added.

Εἰ γὰρ ὑπὸ ὀδόντος τοι εἶπε τελευτήσειν με, χρῆν δή σε ποιέειν τὰ ποιέεις: νῦν δὲ ὑπὸ αἰχμῆς, for if the dream had said that I was to be killed by a tooth, then you would properly do what you now do; but it really said I was to be killed by a spear. HDT. i. 39. (Here the real apodosis is not in ποιέειν alone, which is affirmed in τὰ ποιέεις, but in the combined idea you would do with propriety; and it is the opposite of this which is implied. Χρῆν ἄν, which might have been used, would throw the main force on the χρῆν, with the meaning it would be your duty to do.) Εἰ μὲν οὖν ἅπαντες ὡμολογοῦμεν Φίλιππον τῇ πόλει πολεμεῖν, οὐδὲν ἄλλο ἔδει τὸν παριόντα λέγειν καὶ συμβουλεύειν ὅπως ἀσφαλέστατα αὐτὸν ἀμυνούμεθα, i.e. if then we were all agreed that Philip is at war with us, the speaker ought to say nothing else and to give no other advice than this, etc. (but it is added that, as there is a difference of opinion, it is necessary, ἀνάγκη ἐστίν, to speak on another subject also). DEM. ix. 6. (This implies not he does speak, etc., but he is bound to speak, etc. Ἔδει ἄν would merely have thrown the balance of force upon the necessity, whereas now it falls on the speaking and advising.) Εἰ γὰρ παρ᾽ ἐμοὶ ἐτέθη τὸ γραμματεῖον, ἐνῆν αἰτιάσασθαι Ἀπατουρίῳ ὡς ἐγὼ ἠφάνικα τὰς συνθήκας, for if the account-book had been given me to keep, A. might possibly have charged me with putting the contract out of the way (implying that, as it was, he could not charge me with this). Id. xxxiii. 37. Εἰ μὲν ἑώρα μεταμέλον τῇ πόλει τῶν πεπραγμένων, οὐκ ἄξιον ἦν θαυμάζειν αὐτοῦ, if he had seen that the state repented of her acts, we should have no good reason for being surprised at him (implying we now have good reason for surprise, ἀξίως θαυμάζομεν). ISOC. xviii. 21.

The preceding examples confirm the reading of the best MSS. in EUR. Med. 490, εἰ γὰρ ἦσθ᾽ ἄπαις ἔτι, συγγνωστὸν ἦν σοι τοῦδ᾽ ἐρασθῆναι λέχους, which may be translated, for if you had remained still childless, you might pardonably have become enamoured of this new marriage, the apodosis being equivalent to ἠράσθης ἄν with an adverb meaning pardonably (if you had done what would have been pardonable). This implies not you were not enamoured, but you were not pardonably enamoured. If no protasis had been added, συγγνωστὸν ἦν ἐρασθῆναι (in its potential sense) must have meant you might pardonably have become enamoured (but you did not), and then ἄν would have been required to give the sense it would have been pardonable (but is not so). The other reading, συγγνώστ᾽ ἂν ἦν, would make the same change in the balance of force that χρῆν ἄν, ἔδει ἄν, ἐνῆν ἄν, and ἄξιον ἂν ἦν would make in the preceding examples.

2. In concessive sentences introduced by καὶ εἰ, even if, οὐδ᾽ εἰ, not even if, or εἰ, although, containing unreal conditions, where the action of the apodosis is not denied but affirmed (see 412, 3), the real apodosis may be represented by an infinitive and a leading verb like ἔδει, ἐξῆν, etc. combined. E.g. Οὐκ ἐξῆν αὐτῷ δικάζεσθαι περὶ τῶν τότε γεγενημένων, οὐδ᾽ εἰ πάντα ταῦτ᾽ ἦν πεποιηκὼς φησιν οὗτος, he could not maintain a suit about what was then done, even if I had really done what he says I did (implying οὐκ ἔξεστιν αὐτῳ δικάζεσθαι, but with the chief force on δικάζεσθαι). ISOC. xviii. 19. Οὐδ᾽ εἰ γνήσιοι ἦσαν εἰσποιητοὶ δὲ, ὡς οὗτοι ἔφασαν, οὐδ᾽ οὕτω προσῆκεν αὐτοὺς Εὐκτήμονος εἶναι, not even if they were genuine sons and were afterwards adopted into another family, would they now properly belong to E. 's house (implying they do not properly belong there). ISAE. vi. 44.See also HDT. vii. 56; DEM. xviii. 199, DEM. xxiii. 107.

Οὐδ᾽ εἰ γὰρ ἦν τὸ πρᾶγμα μὴ θεήλατον, ἀκάθαρτον ὑμᾶς εἰκὸς ἦν οὕτως ἐᾶν, for even if the duty were not urged upon you by a God, you ought not to leave the guilt unpurged as you do. SOPH. O.T. 255. (Here the apodosis as a whole is affirmed, although the infinitive itself, not to leave, is denied. So in the two following examples.) Καλὸν δ᾽ ἦν, εἰ καὶ ἡμαρτάνομεν, τοῖσδε εἶξαι τῇ ἡμετέρᾳ ὀργῇ, ἡμῖν δ᾽ αἰσχρὸν (sc. ἦν) βιάσασθαι τὴν μετριότητα, if we had even been in the wrong, they might fairly have yielded to our wrath, while we could not have done violence to their moderation without disgrace. THUC. i. 38. Ἄξιον ἦν, εἰ καὶ μηδὲν αὐταῖς πρότερον ὑπῆρχεν ἀγαθὸν, (ταύτας) τῆς μεγίστης δωρεᾶς παρὰ τῶν Ἑλλήνων τυχεῖν, i.e. these cities, even if they had had no other merit to rely on, deserved to receive (ought to have received) the greatest reward from the Greeks (which, it is said, they did not receive). ISOC. xii. 71.

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    • William Watson Goodwin, Commentary on Demosthenes: On the Crown, 248
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