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444. When a supposed future case is stated distinctly and vividly (as if I shall go or if I go in English) the protasis generally takes the subjunctive with ἐάν, ἤν, or ἄν (α_) (Epic εἴ κε or αἴ κε). The apodosis takes the future indicative or some other form expressing future time, to denote what will be the result if the condition of the protasis is fulfilled. E.g. Ἐάν τι λάβω, δώσω σοι, if I (shall) receive anything, I will give it to you. Ἐάν τι λάβῃς, δός μοι, if you receive anything, give it to me. Εἰ δέ κεν ὣς ἔρξῃς καί τοι πείθωνται Ἀχαιοὶ, γνώσῃ ἔπειθ᾽ ὅς θ᾽ ἡγεμόνων κακὸς ὅς τέ νυ λαῶν, but if you shall do thus and the Achaeans obey you, you will then learn both which of the leaders and which of the soldiers is bad. Il. ii. 364. Αἴ κ᾽ αὐτὸν γνώω νημερτέα πάντ᾽ ἐνέποντα, ἕσσω μιν χλαῖνάν τε χιτῶνά τε, εἵματα καλά. Od. xvii. 549.So αἴ κε δῶσι, Il. i. 128. Εἰ μέν κεν Μενέλαον Ἀλέξανδρος καταπέφνῃ, αὐτὸς ἔπειθ᾽ Ἑλένην ἐχέτω καὶ κτήματα πάντα, ἡμεῖς δ᾽ ἐν νήεσσι νεώμεθα ποντοπόροισιν: εἰ δέ κ᾽ Ἀλέξανδρον κτείνῃ ξανθὸς Μενέλαος, Τρῶας ἔπειθ᾽ Ἑλένην καὶ κτήματα πάντ᾽ ἀποδοῦναι. Il. iii. 281.Here ἐχέτω, νεώμεθα (subj. in exhortation), and ἀποδοῦναι (infin. for imperative) are in the apodosis. Αἴκα τῆνος ἕλῃ κεραὸν τράγον, αἶγα τὺ λαψῇ. THEOC. i. 4. Ἂν δέ τις ἀνθιστῆται, σὺν ὑμῖν πειρασόμεθα χειροῦσθαι, if any one shall stand opposed to us, with your help we will try to overcome him. XEN. An. vii. 3, 11. Κἂν μὴ νῦν ἐθέλωμεν ἐκεῖ πολεμεῖν αὐτῷ, ἐνθάδ᾽ ἴσως ἀναγκασθησόμεθα τοῦτο ποιεῖν, and if we shall not now be willing to fight him there, we shall perhaps be forced to do so here. DEM. iv. 50. (Here νῦν refers to time immediately following the present: if we are not now willing would be εἰ μὴ νῦν ἐθέλομεν.) Ἢν γὰρ ταῦτα καλῶς ὁρισώμεθα, ἄμεινον βουλευσόμεθα καὶ περὶ τῶν ἄλλων. ISOC. viii. 18. Ἢν δὲ τὴν εἰρήνην ποιησώμεθα, καὶ τοιούτους ἡμᾶς αὐτοὺς παράσχωμεν, μετὰ πολλῆς ἀσφαλείας τὴν πόλιν οἰκήσομεν. Id. viii. 20. Ἐὰν οὖν ἴῃς νῦν, πότε ἔσει οἴκοι; XEN. Cyr. v. 3, 27. Καὶ χρῶ αὐτοῖς, ἐὰν δέῃ τι, and use them, if there shall be any need. Ib. v. 4, Ib. 30. Ἢν μὲν πόλεμον αἱρῆσθε, μηκέτι ἥκετε δεῦρο ἄνευ ὅπλων, εἰ σωφρονεῖτε: ἢν δὲ εἰρήνης δοκῆτε δεῖσθαι, ἄνευ ὅπλων ἥκετε: ὡς δὲ καλῶς ἕξει τὰ ὑμέτερα, ἢν φίλοι γένησθε ἐμοὶ μελήσει. Ib. iii. 2, Ib. 13. Ἐὰν γάρ τί σε φανῶ κακὸν πεποιηκὼς, ὁμολογῶ ἀδικεῖν: ἐὰν μέντοι μηδὲν φαίνωμαι κακὸν πεποιηκὼς μηδὲ βουληθεὶς, οὐ καὶ σὺ αὖ ὁμολογήσεις μηδὲν ὑπ᾽ ἐμοῦ ἀδικεῖσθαι; Ib. v. 5, Ib. 13. (Here ὁμολογῶ, I am ready to confess, refers to the future.) Ἐὰν μὴ οἱ φιλόσοφοι βασιλεύσωσιν οἱ βασιλῆς φιλοσοφήσωσιν, οὐκ ἔστι κακῶν παῦλα ταῖς πόλεσιν, unless either the philosophers shall become kings or the kings philosophers, there is no escape from troubles for states. PLAT. Rep. 473D. Δίδωσ᾽ ἑκὼν κτείνειν ἑαυτὸν, ἢν τάδε ψευσθῇ λέγων, “he offers himself willingly to suffer death in case he shall be proved false in this that he says.” SOPH. Ph. 1342. Μηχανητέον, ἐάν τε χρυσίον ἡρπακὼς πολὺ, μὴ ἀποδῷ τοῦτο, ἐάν τε θανάτου ἄξια ἠδικικὼς , ὅπως μὴ ἀποθανεῖται, if he shall (prove to) have stolen much gold, we must contrive that he shall not restore it; and if he shall have committed crimes deserving death, that he shall not die. PLAT. Gorg. 481 A (for the perfects see 103). Ἤν σε τοῦ λοιποῦ ποτ᾽ ἀφέλωμαι χρόνου, κάκιστ᾽ ἀπολοίμην, i.e. may I perish, if I ever take them away. AR. Ran. 586. (See 181.)

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