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472. Often the protasis is not expressed in its regular form with εἰ or ἐάν, but is contained in a participle, or implied in an adverb like οὕτως or δικαίως, in a preposition with its case, or in some other form of expression. When a participle represents the protasis (841), its tense is always that in which the verb itself would have stood in the indicative, subjunctive, or optative. The present (as usual) includes the imperfect, and the perfect includes the pluperfect. E.g. Τοῦτο ποιοῦντες εὖ πράξουσιν (i.e. ἐὰν ποιῶσιν), if they (shall) do this, they will prosper. Τοῦτο ποιήσαντες εὖ πράξουσιν (i.e. ἐὰν ποιήσωσιν). Τοῦτο ποιοῦντες εὖ ἂν πράττοιεν (i.e. εἰ ποιοῖεν), if they should do this, they would prosper. Τοῦτο ποιήσαντες εὖ ἂν πράττοιεν (i.e. εἰ ποιήσαιεν). Τοῦτο ποιοῦντες εὖ ἂν ἔπραττον (i.e. εἰ ἐποίουν), if they were doing this (or if they had been doing this), they would be in prosperity. Τοῦτο ποιήσαντες εὖ ἂν ἔπραττον (i.e. εἰ ἐποίησαν), if they had done this, they would be in prosperity.

Πῶς δῆτα δίκης οὔσης Ζεὺς οὐκ ἀπόλωλεν τὸν πατέρ᾽ αὑτοῦ δήσας;” “i.e. how is it that Zeus has not been destroyed, if Justice exists?” AR. Nub. 904. (Here δίκης οὔσης represents εἰ δίκη ἐστίν.) Ἀλλ᾽ εἰσόμεσθα δόμους παραστείχοντες (ἐὰν παραστείχωμεν), but we shall know, if we enter the house. SOPH. Ant. 1255. Σὺ δὲ κλύων εἴσει τάχα (ἐὰν κλύῃς), but you will soon know, if you listen. AR. Av. 1390. So μὴ μαθών, unless I learn, for ἐὰν μὴ μάθω, AR. Nub. 792. Καί κεν τοῦτ᾽ ἐθέλοιμι Διός γε διδόντος ἀρέσθαι (Διὸς δίδοντος = εἰ Ζεὺς διδοίη), and this I should like to obtain, if Zeus would only give it. Hom. Od. i. 390. Τοιαῦτά τἂν γυναιξὶ συνναίων ἔχοις (εἰ συνναίοις), such things would you suffer, if you should live with women. Sept. 195. Οὐδ᾽ ἂν σιωπήσαιμι τὴν ἄτην ὁρῶν στείχουσαν ἀστοῖς (i.e. εἰ ὁρῴην). SOPH. Ant. 185. Ἀθηναίων δὲ τὸ αὐτὸ τοῦτο παθόντων, διπλασίαν ἂν τὴν δύναμιν εἰκάζεσθαι (οἶμαι), but if the Athenians should ever suffer this (παθόντων = εἰ πάθοιεν), I think it would be inferred that their power was twice as great. THUC. i. 10. (Here only the context shows that παθόντων does not represent εἰ ἔπαθον, if they had ever suffered.) Πρὶν γενέσθαι ἠπίστησεν ἄν τις ἀκούσας (i.e. εἰ ἤκουσεν), before it happened, any one would have disbelieved such a thing if he had heard it. THUC. vii. 28. Οὐ γὰρ ἂν μεταπείθειν ὑμᾶς ἐζήτει μὴ τοιαύτης οὔσης τῆς ὑπαρχούσης ὑπολήψεως, for he would not be seeking to change your minds, if such were not the prevailing opinion (i.e. εἰ μὴ τοιαύτη ἦν). DEM. xviii. 228. Ἔστιν οὖν ὅπως ταῦτ᾽ ἂν, ἐκεῖνα προειρηκὼς, αὐτὸς ἀνὴρ μὴ διαφθαρεὶς ἐτόλμησεν εἰπεῖν; is it possible then that the same man, after saying that, would have dared to say this unless he had been corrupted (εἰ μὴ διεφθάρη? Id. xix. 308. Μὴ κατηγορήσαντος Αἰσχίνου μηδὲν ἔξω τῆς γραφῆς οὐδ᾽ ἂν ἐγὼ λόγον οὐδένα ἐποιούμην ἕτερον (εἰ μὴ κατηγόρησεν). Id. xviii. 34. Τὰ αὐτὰ ἂν ἔπραξε καὶ πρώτη λαχοῦσα (i.e. εἰ πρώτη ἔλαχεν), it (the soul) would have done the same, even if it had had the first choice by the lot. PLAT. Rep. 620D.Μαμμᾶν δ᾽ ἂν αἰτήσαντος ἧκόν σοι φέρων ἂν ἄρτον,” “and if you ever asked for something to eat, I used to come bringing you bread.” AR. Nub. 1383. (Here αἰτήσαντος represents εἰ αἰτήσειας in a general supposition, AR. Nub. 462. For ἧκον ἄν see 162.)

Οὔτε ἐσθίουσι πλείω δύνανται φέρειν, διαρραγεῖεν γὰρ ἄν: οὔτ᾽ ἀμφιέννυνται πλείω δύνανται φέρειν, ἀποπνιγεῖεν γὰρ ἄν, they do not eat more than they can bear, for (if they should) they would burst, etc. XEN. Cyr. viii. 2, 21. Αὐτοὶ ἂν ἐπορεύθησαν οἱ ἄλλοι: τὰ δ᾽ ὑποζύγια οὐκ ἦν ἄλλῃ ταύτῃ ἐκβῆναι, “they would have gone themselves where the others went; but the animals could not go otherwise than as they did.” Id. An. iv. 2, Id. An. 10.So γὰρ ἂν λωβήσαιο, Il. i. 232.

Ἡμῖν δ᾽ ἐξ πολλῆς ἂν περιουσίας νεῶν μόλις τοῦτο ὑπῆρχε καὶ μὴ ἀναγκαζομένοις, ὥσπερ νῦν, πάσαις φυλάσσειν, but we should hardly have this advantage if we had a great superiority in number of ships (= εἰ πολλὴν περιουσίαν εἴχομεν) and if we were not compelled (εἰ μὴ ἠναγκαζόμεθα), as we are, to use our whole fleet in guarding. THUC. vii. 13. Τὸ μὲν ἐπ᾽ ἐκείνῳ πολλάκις ἂν διελύθησαν, if it had depended on him, they often would have been disbanded. ISOC. iv. 142. Διά γε ὑμᾶς αὐτοὺς πάλαι ἂν ἀπολώλειτε, if it had depended on yourselves, you would long ago have been ruined. DEM. xviii. 49. (So sometimes καθ᾽ ὑμᾶς.) Πάλαι γὰρ ἂν ἕνεκά γε ψηφισμάτων ἐδεδώκει δίκην, for, if decrees were of any avail, he would long ago have suffered punishment. Id. iii. 14. (Here the protasis is implied in ἕνεκα ψηφισμάτων.) Οὕτω γὰρ οὐκέτι τοῦ λοιποῦ πάσχοιμεν ἂν κακῶς, “for in that case we should no longer suffer.” Id. iv. 15.So ὡς οὕτω περιγενόμενος ἄν, XEN. An. i. 1, 10. Οὐδ᾽ ἂν δικαίως ἐς κακὸν πέσοιμί τι. SOPH. Ant. 240.

In such cases the form of the apodosis generally shows what form of protasis is implied. When the apodosis is itself expressed by an infinitive or participle (479), as in THUC. i. 10 (above), the form of the protasis is shown only by the general sense of the passage.

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  • Commentary references to this page (2):
    • William Watson Goodwin, Commentary on Demosthenes: On the Crown, 214
    • William Watson Goodwin, Commentary on Demosthenes: On the Crown, 49
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