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49. (a) The perfect of many verbs has the signification of a present, which may usually be explained by the peculiar meaning of the verbs. Thus θνῄσκειν, to die, τεθνηκέναι, to be dead; καλεῖν, to call, κεκλῆσθαι, to be called or named; γίγνεσθαι, to become, γεγονέναι, to be; μιμνῄσκειν, to remind, μεμνῆσθαι, to remember; εἰδέναι, to know; ἱστάναι, to place, ἑστάναι, to stand. So βεβηκέναι, to stand; ἐγνωκέναι, to know; ἠμφιέσθαι, to wear; κεκτῆσθαι, to possess; πεποιθέναι, to trust; πεφυκέναι, to be (by nature); etc.

(b) The pluperfect of such verbs has the signification of the imperfect; as οἶδα, I know, ᾔδειν, I knew.

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