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587. Ὥστε with the infinitive, with a demonstrative expressed or implied, means so as; but when the infinitive has a subject which must be expressed in English, we are generally obliged to translate the particle with its antecedent by so that. The expression properly means only that one action or state is of such a nature as to be followed by another as a consequence; but it is often implied also, apart from the words, that the second action or state actually does follow.

1. The consequence may be simply a result which a previous act tends to produce. E.g. Ἀμφὶ δὲ κυκλοῦντο πᾶσαν νῆσον, ὥστ᾽ ἀμηχανεῖν ὅποι τράποιντο, and they encircled the whole island, so that they (the Persians) knew not whither to turn (i.e. so as to perplex the Persians, etc.) AESCH. Pers. 457.Τόσονδε μισεῖν ὥστε τὴν δίκην πατεῖν,” “to hate so violently as to trample on justice.” SOPH. Aj. 1335 ; so 1325. Σὺ δὲ σχολάζεις, ὥστε θαυμάζειν ἐμέ, but you delay, so that I am astonished (see 584). EUR. Hec. 730. Πάντας οὕτω διατιθεὶς ἀπεπέμπετο ὥστε αὐτῷ μᾶλλον φίλους εἶναι τῷ βασιλεῖ. XEN. An. i. 1, 5. Δυσκολία καὶ μανία πολλάκις εἰς τὴν διάνοιαν ἐμπίπτουσιν οὕτως ὥστε καὶ τὰς ἐπιστήμας ἐκβάλλειν. Id. Mem. iii. 12, Id. Mem. 6. Ἦν πεπαιδευμένος οὕτως ὥστε πάνυ μικρὰ κεκτημένος πάνυ ῥᾳδίως ἔχειν ἀρκοῦντα, he had been so educated as very easily to have enough, although he possessed very little. Ib. i. 2, Ib. 1. Φῦναι δὲ Κῦρος λέγεται φιλοτιμότατος, ὥστε πάντα μὲν πόνον ἀνατλῆναι πάντα δὲ κίνδυνον ὑπομεῖναι. Id. Cyr. i. 2, Id. Cyr. 1. Ἀπέχρη γὰρ ἂν τοῖς γνωσθεῖσιν ἐμμένειν, ὥστε μηδεμίαν ἡμῖν εἶναι πρὸς τοῦτον διαφοράν, “for we should be content to abide by the decision so as to have no difference with him.” DEM. xxvii. 1. Πολλὰς ἐλπίδας ἔχω ἀρκούντως ἐρεῖν, ὥστε ὑμᾶς μήτ᾽ ἀπολειφθῆναι τῶν πραγμάτων μήτ᾽ ἀγνοῆσαι, κ.τ.λ. Id. xxvii. 2. Τοιοῦτον ἔθος ἡμῖν παρέδοσαν, ὥστε σπεισαμένους συνελθεῖν ἐς ταὐτόν. ISOC. iv. 43.So iv. 42. Εἰ τοιοῦτον εἴη σοφία, ὥστ᾽ ἐκ τοῦ πληρεστέρου εἰς τὸν κενώτερον ῥεῖν ἡμῶν, “of such a nature as to flow.” PLAT. Symp. 175D

Πείσομαι γὰρ οὐ τοσοῦτον οὐδὲν ὥστε μὴ οὐ καλῶς θανεῖν, “for I shall suffer nothing so terrible as to prevent me from dying gloriously.” SOPH. Ant. 96. (For μὴ οὐ see 815, SOPH. Ant. 2.

2. The consequence may have the form of a stipulation, condition, or limitation. E.g. Ποιοῦνται ὁμολογίαν πρὸς Πάχητα, ὥστε Ἀθηναίοις ἐξεῖναι βουλεῦσαι περὶ τῶν Μυτιληναίων, they make a treaty with Paches, to the effect that the Athenians shall be permitted, etc. THUC. iii. 28. Ἀναστήσας αὐτοὺς ὥστε μὴ ἀδικῆσαι, having removed them on condition of doing them no harm. Ibid. So i. 29, THUC. vii. 83.So Id. iii. 114, ξυμμαχίαν ἐποιήσαντο ἐπὶ τοῖσδε, ὥστε μὴ στρατεύειν. Ἐξὸν αὐτοῖς τῶν λοιπῶν ἄρχειν Ἑλλήνων, ὥστ᾽ αὐτοὺς ὑπακούειν βασιλεῖ, it being in their power to rule the rest of the Greeks, on condition that they should themselves serve the King. DEM. vi. 11.

3. The consequence may be aimed at as a purpose, the consecutive clause becoming also final. E.g. Πᾶν ποιοῦσιν, ὥστε δίκην μὴ διδόναι, they do everything in such a way as not to suffer punishment, i.e. that they may not suffer. PLAT. Gorg. 479 C. (Here ἵνα μή with the subjunctive might be used, but it would express only the final element.) Ἐβουλήθησαν Ἐλευσῖνα ἐξιδιώσασθαι, ὥστε εἶναι σφίσι καταφυγὴν εἰ δεήσειε, they wished to appropriate Eleusis, so that they might have a refuge if they should need it. XEN. Hell. ii. 4, 8. Μηχαναὶ πολλαί εἰσιν, ὥστε διαφεύγειν θάνατον, “there are many devices for escaping death.” PLAT. Ap. 39A. (Here we might have ὅπως διαφευξεῖταί τις.) Μηχανὰς εὑρήσομεν, ὥστ᾽ ἐς τὸ πᾶν σε τῶνδ᾽ ἀπαλλάξαι πόνων, we will find devices to free you, etc. (= ὅπως σε ἀπαλλάξομεν). AESCH. Eum. 82.

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