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Second exercise (Livy 1.9.1)

[Romulus has enclosed a great space with his fortifications, and gathered a crowd of refugees into his new city.]

Iam resPossible cases? Nom. sing., nom. or acc. pl. RomanaProbable case and construction of res? Nom., subject of main verb. adeoCommonest meaning of adeo? and how must its meaning, if completed, be completed? To such a degree; by consecutive ut-sentence. eratMeaning of the tense? State of affairs at the point at which the story has reached. What two parts of speech are capable of completing the sentence? Adjective and participle. valida, ut cuilibetPart of speech? what other word is substantially equivalent? Indefinite pronoun; cuivis. How are we to think of the meaning of case? As some aspect of the indirect object. finitimarumSuggests the beginning of what construction? Partitive genitive. civitatum belloPossible cases and possible constructions? Dative of some aspect of the indirect object, or ablative in some instrumental aspect. Can cuilibet go with bello, and why? No; for the partitive genitive shows that cuilibet refers to a civitati. Then is bello more likely to turn out to be a dative, or an ablative? An ablative. parWhat suspense about Livy's meaning is now resolved? Cuilibet is the dative of the indirect object to which the quality of par is directed, and bello is the ablative of respect for par. ---Write the predicate from sum. Esset. sed penuriaPossible cases? Nom. or abl. If the idea is completed, by what case? Objective genitive. mulierum hominis aetatemPossible meanings of the case? Duration of time, appositive, object of a verb, or subject or predicate of an infinitive. duraturaProbable meaning of aetatem? Duration of time. What two possibilities for the government of duratura? That it belongs (1) to penuria, magnitudoWhat do we now feel about the case of penuria, and the meaning of that case? That it is an ablative, expressing the cause of duratura. ---, Write predicate from sum, choosing the tense with care. Erat. quippeConceive of quippe as an adverb, meaning indeed, in fact. quibus What is the probable nature of the quibus-sentence, and what its construction? Adjectival, i.e., a characterizing sentence in subjunctive. What must be the underlying relation between the condition of affairs which we shall find expressed in the quibus-sentence, and the condition of affairs expressed in the main sentence? Causal. What is the antecedent of quibus? The people to whom the magnitudo belonged, the inhabitants of the town. Possible cases? Dat. or abl. Quibus indicates persons. How does that narrow the possibilities of an ablative construction? It can be only abl. absolute, or ablative dependent on a comparative or some word like fretus or contentus, or ablative of source with some word like genitus, ortus, natus. necWhat is sure about nec? That it balances a later nec or et. domiConstruction? Locative. spesWhat must follow? Objective genitive or future infinitive. prolis nec cum finitimis conubia --- Complete the sentence by writing the proper form from the verb sum. Essent. Translate.

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  • Cross-references from this page (1):
    • Livy, The History of Rome, Book 1, 9.1
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