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Fifth exercise (Livy 21.53.1)

[The passage here used was employed in the address. It is given again in its place among the present set of papers, partly to show that the minute questioning with which a teacher of an untrained Freshman class must begin may give place early to a more rapid movement, after the habit of watchfulness and a willingness to hold the mind in suspense have been established.]

Hannibal cum quidWhat must be the construction of the verb of the quid-sentence, and why? Subjunctive of indirect question of fact, or of indirect deliberative question. optimum foret hoste cerneret, vixIn such a connection, what would be the pronoun meaning any, and what the adjective? Quisquam, ullus. ullam spemWhat would be the completing construction (a) if nominal?1 (b) if verbal? (a) Genitive. (b) Genitive of gerund or of gerundive, or future infinitive. habebat temereDoes temere, judging by the order, probably modify habebat, or something yet to come? The latter. Then what do you surmise about the completing construction for spem? That it is a verbal construction. atque improvide --- Write the neuter pronoun meaning anything, in nom. or acc. form. Quicquam. consulesGeneral construction hereby indicated, and construction of consules and of the word you have just written? The verbal for spem is an infinitive, with quicquam for subject and consules for object, or vice versa. --- Write the infinitive, meaning to do. Acturos. cum alterius ingenium, famaCase? Nom. or abl. prius deinde reCase of fama, and proof. Abl., because the phrase prius deinde makes it parallel with re. cognitum, percitum ac ferox sciret ---, Write verb required to complete the clause. Esse. ferociusque factum prospero cum praedatoribusWhat is indicated by a combination like prospero cum praedatoribus? That cum connects with praedatoribus a noun, yet to come, to which prospero belongs. suis certamine crederet, adesse gerendae rei fortunam haud diffidebat.Translate.

1 It would be a practical convenience if there were an adjective bearing the same relation to the words "noun" and "pronoun" that "verbal" bears to "verb."  For my own use I have employed the adjective "nominal" in this sense.

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    • Livy, The History of Rome, Book 21, 53
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