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Then I at once bring what we have learned to bear by giving a piece of blank paper to each student and starting out upon a new sentence, which shall involve what we have just seen, together with some fresh matter. The questions are carefully studied and written out in advance, and the place of each is indicated to me, in my prepared manuscript, by a number attached to the Latin word concerned, as if for a footnote. As each question is put, the number is at once written down by each student and his answer written out. Afterwards my assistant carefully goes through every paper, and with a colored paper marks every error, for my own guidance, and for the subsequent study, penitence, and profit of the writer. The following is an example actually used, from Livy 21.53. The answer that should be written is given with each question.

Hannibal Construction? Subject of a verb, either subordinate or main. cum Part of speech? Preposition or conjunction quid Cum was what part of speech? Conjunction Construction of Hannibal? Subject or predicate nominative of verb introduced by cum. Quid is what part of speech? Interrogative Construction of the verb to which quid belongs? Subjunctive of indirect question General nature of meaning of verb introduced by cum? Some meaning that can imply a question Case of quid? Nom. or acc. neut. sing. Construction of quid? Subject, predicate, or object of finite verb or infinitive; or acc. of specification, the so-called adverb. optimum Case? Nom. neut. sing., or acc. masc. or neut. sing. Construction? If neut., agreeing with subject or object of verb, or in predicate. If masc., agreeing with object of verb, or with subject or predicate of an infinitive. What constructions may follow to complete the meaning of optimum? Dat. of the person for whom something is optimum, or abl. of that with respect to which something is optimum. (It is worthwhile to have those two possibilities pat, for the great class of words of which optimum is a specimen.) foret Where made? Imperfect subjunctive. (Reason already given under 6. hosti Construction? Dative after optimum. (Reason given under 12. cerneret, Where made, and introduced by what? Imperfect subjunctive, introduced by cum. Construction of Hannibal? Subject of cerneret vix Vix, hardly, has a negative feeling. In such a connection, what would be the pronoun meaning "any," and what the adjective? (Probably nobody knows.) Quisquam, ullus ullam spem Construction? Acc. sing., object of verb, or subject or predicate of infinitive. Spes, just as much as spero, indicates a mental activity, and we shall probably find something else, completing its meaning, the object of the spes. What will be the case (a) if the completing word is a noun? (b) if the completing word is a verb? Objective genitive of a noun; of a verb, objective genitive of gerund or of gerundive with noun, or future infinitive. habebat Subject is what? A pronoun, repeating Hannibal. temere Part of speech, and simplest meaning? Adverb, meaning blindly. Bearing in mind that, in the ordinary Roman habit, words were placed in anticipation of those which they modify, not after them, what do you feel about temere? That it modifies the expected object of spem, which, consequently, is a verb. atque Probably introduces what? Another adverb, corresponding to temere. --- Write an adverb to mean 'not looking ahead.' Improvide --- Write nom. or acc. neut. sing. meaning 'anything' (in one word). Quicquam. In what case is that word here, and with what verb is it connected? Acc., connected with a verb, which verb must depend on spem. consules Where made, without reference to context? Nom. or acc. plur. Where made, with reference to context, and how do you know? Acc., because habebat is sing. Meaning of this accusative? That consules is subject, object, or predicate of an infinitive. Relation of quicquam and consules to each other? One the object, the other the subject, of the infinitive. ---Complete the sentence, using a verb meaning 'do.' Acturos, with or without esse. Write, in the best English you have at your command, a translation of the sentence.

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    • Livy, The History of Rome, Book 21, 53
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