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Ode XXI


A song for youths and maidens in honor of Apollo and Diana, as averting deities, ἀλεξίκακοι.

The occasion is unknown. Possibly the first celebration of the Actian games, B.C. 28; or the poem may be a sketch of a carmen saeculare for the proposed earlier celebration of the secular games, B.C. 23. For motif, cf. Cat. 34. 1, Dianae sumus in fide.


Dīanam: the quantity of the i varies. Cf. 3. 4. 71; 2. 12. 20; C. S. 70.—tenerae . . . virgines:. cf. 4. 1. 26.


intonsum: Milton's 'unshorn Apollo,' Ἀκειρεκόμης; Pind. Pyth. 3. 14; Il. 20. 39; levis, 4. 6. 28; Tibull. 1. 4. 37, solis aeterna est Phoebo Bacchoque iuventa, | nam decet intonsus crinis utrumque deum. Cf. Epode 15. 9; Callim. Hymn. Apoll. 38.Cynthium: Apollo was so called from Mt. Cynthus in Delos where he and Diana were born. Cf. Cynthia = Diana, 3. 28. 12.


Latonam: as mother of Apollo and Diana.


dilectam: so with dat. (2. 4. 18).—penitus: deeply; κηρόθι.


vos: sc. virgines.—laetam, etc.: Ἄρτεμις ποταμία and Λιμνᾶτις; Diana nemorensis. Cf. Catull. 34. 9, montium domina ut fores | silvarumque virentium | saltuumque reconditorum | amniumque sonantum; Milton, Comus, 'And she was queen of the woods.'—nemorum coma: cf. 4. 3. 11; 4. 7. 2; Il. 17. 677; Odyss. 23. 195, ἀπέκοψα κόμην τανυφύλλου ἐλαίης; Soph. Antig. 419; Eurip. Alcest. 172; Catull. 4. 10, comata silva; Tenn., omitted stanza in Amphion, 'The birch-tree swang her fragrant hair, | The bramble cast her berry'; Swinburne, Erechth. 1146, 'Fields afiower with winds and suns, | Woods with shadowing hair.'


Cf. Swinburne, Erechth., 'all wildwood leaves | The wind waves on the hills of all the world'; Il. 2. 632, Νήριτον εἰνοσίφυλλον; Pind. Pyth. 1. 28, Αἴτνας ἐν μελαμφύλλοις . . . κορυφαῖς Ar. Clouds, 279-280, ὑψηλῶν ὀρέων κορυφὰς ἔπι δενδροκόμους; Catull. 4 11-12; Thomson, Winter, 'forest-rustling mountain.'


gelido: cf. nivali, 3. 23. 9.—Algido: a mountain in Latium, a haunt of Diana. Cf. C. S. 69; 4. 4. 58.


nigris: 4. 4. 58; 4. 12. 11. So Juv. Sat. 3. 54 renders μελάμφυλλος by opacus. Cf. 2. 2. 15. n.—Erymanthus: mountain in Arcadia; Diana there (Odyss. 6. 103); δενδροκόμης Ἐρύμανθος (Anth. Pal. 5. 19. 5).


viridis: the lighter green of the oaks and beeches contrasted with the dark green of the firs and pines.—Cragus:mt. in Lycia.


Tempe: 1. 7. 4. n.An early seat of the Apolline religion.—totidem: pure prose.Cf. 2. 8. 17 n.; 4. 4. 29 n.


natalem: birthplace; cf. 3. 4. 63. n.—Delon: Delos Was one of the Cyclades.


insignem . . . lyra: and the god with shoulder adorned by quiver and his brother's lyre. With insignem sc. deum, i.e. Apollo. Umerum is Greek accus., as to his shoulder.—pharetra: 3. 4. 60.


fraterna: of Mercury, who invented the lyre but, after the discovery of the theft of the oxen, gave it to Apollo; cf. on 1. 10. 6; cf. materna, 1. 12. 9; Verg. Aen. 5. 72.


lacrimosum: Verg. Aen. 7. 604, lacrimabile bellum; Il. 5. 737; Anacr. fr. 31; Aeschyl. Suppl. 681, δακρυογόνον Ἄρη, etc.—famem: there was a scarcity of grain, B.C. 23. Cf. Vell. 2. 94. Famine and pestilence coupled, as Hes. Ἔργ. 243.


principe: leader; cf. 1. 2. 50. n.; Epist. 2. 1. 256; 3. 14. 15. n.; 4. 15. 17.


Britannos: 1. 25. 39. n. For the antique frankness of this prayer, cf. 3. 27. 21. n. Anth. Pal. 6. 240.


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