Spring is here once more. The seasons come and go, and come again; but man goes, and comes again no more. For sentiment, of. 1.4. For Torquatus, of. Epp. 1.5. The date is not known. There is a translation by Johnson.
diffugere: of. Verg. Aen. 2.399; and for expansion of metaphor, Wordsworth, 'Like an army defeated |The snow has retreated | And now doth fare ill| On the top of the bare hill.'--campis: 'whither' and 'for whom' dative blended.
comae: of. on 1.21.5; 4.3.11.
mutat . . . vices: undergoes her annual changes, -'the season's difference.' Mutat may be intransitive. For vices, cf. 1.4.1; Epode 13.8; and the imitations of later Latin poets in Orelli. Cf. Milton's 'rule the day in their vicissitude' and Gray's Ode on Vicissitude. Cf. also Rossetti, House of Life, 83, 'Once more the changed year's turning wheel returns'; Tenn., 'Once more the HeavenIy Power| Makes all things new.' --terra: tersa, the dry land.--decrescentia: subsiding, no longer nive turgidi (4.12.4).
praetereunt: not as in 1.2.19 or 4.2.6. So Jonson, Underwoods, 'The rivers in their shores do run,| The clouds rack clear before the sun.'
The three Graces. Cf. on 3.19.16 and 1.4.6. Spenser, Shepherd's Cal. 6.25.
immortalia: neuter plural for English abstract. So also in Homer.--monet: is the warning of; 1.18.8:--annus: the revolving year, περιπλόμενος ἐνιαυτός.--almum: kindly, cheerful. Cf. C. s.9; Verg. Aen. 5.64.
hora: cf. on 3.29.48.
The March of the Seasons is a favorite motif of Poetry. Cf. Lucret. 5.737; Ov. Met. 15.206; Claudian, 1. 269; Spenser, Mutability, 7.28; Shelley, Revolt of Islam, 9. 21; Tenn. In Mem 85; Herrick, 70, 'The Succession of the Foure Sweet Months'; Burns, Bonnie Bell, 'The flowery spring leads sunny summer,| And yellow autumn presses near,| Then in his turn comes gloomy winter, |Till smiling spring again appear.' Dobson, A Song of the Four Seasons.
Zephyris: of. on Favoni, 1. 4. 1.--proterit: tramples down; the heat destroys the vegetation of spring. Others translate, treads on the heels of; of. Romeo and Juliet, 1. 2, 'Such comfort as do lusty young men feel |When well-apparelled April on the heel| Of limping winter treads'; Tenn. Poets and Cities, 'Year will graze the heel of year'; supra. 2.18.15, truditur dies die.
interitura: cf. on 2.3.4.
pomifer: cf. 3.23.8; Epode 2.17. Keats' Autumn conspfres with the maturing sun 'To bend with apples the mossed cottage trees.'--effuderit: suggests the horn of plenty (Epist. 1.12.29, aurea fruges | Italiae pleno defundit Copia cornu. But fundo is regularly used by Lucretius of the production of crops. Cf. Verg. Georg. 2.460.
iners: cf. on 1.22.17; 2.9.5.
Cf. Arnold on Translating Homer, p.207, "'The losses of the heavens," says Horace, "fresh moons speedily repair; we, when we have gone down where the pious Aeneas, where the rich Tullus and Ancus are,--pulvis et umbra sumus." He never actually says where we go to; he only indicates it by saying that it is that place where Aeneas, Tullus, and Ancus are. But Homer, when he has to speak of going down to the grave, says definitely, "The immortals shall send thee to the Elysian plain."'
reparant: cf. Milton, Lycidas, 'So sinks the day-star in the ocean bed, |And yet anon repairs his drooping head'; P. L., 'roses which the morn repaired'; Ov. Met. 1.11; Lucret. 5.666, solis reparare nitorem.
decidimus: cf. Epist. 2.1.36; Ov. Met. 10.18, where the word suggests the falling into the pit, abysm, or δασπλὴς Χάρυβδις (Simonides), of death.
quo pius Aeneas, quo dives Tullus et Ancus. Pius: his usual epithet in the recently published Aeneid. All his piety could not save him.--dives Tullus: for King Tullus' glory and wealth, cf. Livy, 1.31.--Ancus: a consecrated example. Cf. Epp. 1.6.27; Lucret. 3. 1023=Ennius, Ann. 151, lumina sis (suis) oculis etiam bonus Ancus reliquit.
pulvis: 'Two handfuls of white dust shut in an urn of brass' (Tenn.) ; Ἀίδα τὰν ὀλίγαν σποδιάν(Erinna).--umbra: in lower world, Verg. Aen. 6.264; Soph. Electra, 1159, σποδόν τε δαὶ σκιὰν ἀνωφελῆ; Anth. Pal. 5.85, ὀστέα καὶ σποδιή Herond. fr. 1.
quis scit: cf. on nescias an, 2.4.13; also 1.9.13; and for thought, Eurip. Alcest. 783; Sen. Thyest. 619; Herrick, 170. --summae: cf. 1.4.15.
So in Epist. 1.5.15, Horace tells Torquatus that it is folly to stint yourself for your heir. Cf. Persius, Sat. 6.60 sqq. For the 'heir' as a poetical memento mori, cf. on 3.24.62; 2.14.25. Horace was a bachelor.--amico animo: dat. Horace speaks as if the animus had an individuality distinct from that of the person to whom it belongs; it is represented here as being made friendly and contented by indulgence. Cf. indulgere genio, genio bona facere, φίλῃ ψυχῇ χαρίζεσθαι; Simon. fr. 85. 11; Aeschyl. Pers. 840. Cf. on 3.17.14.
semel: cf. on 1.24.16.--splendida: transferred from Minos, whose state is described Odyss. 11.568, to his august decrees. For Minos, cf. note on 1.28.9. --occideris: so Catull. 5.4, in Jonson's imitation, 'Suns that set may rise again| But if once (semel) we lose this light |'Tis with us perpetual night.' For sentiment here and supra (10-15), cf. also Ronsard, A Sa Maitresse, 'La lune est coustumiere |De nestre tous les mois: |Mais quand nostre lumiere | Est esteinte une fois,| Sans nos yeux reveiller |Faut long temps sommeiller'; Herrick, 337.3, 'We see the seas,| And moons to wain;| But they fill up their ebbs again: | But vanisht, man |Like to a Lilly-lost, nere can, |Nere can repullulate, or bring |His dayes to see a second spring,' etc. ; El. in Maecen. 113, redditur arboribus florens revirentibus| aetas et ver non homini quod fuit ante redit; Moschus, Epitaph. Bion. 109 sqq. ; Herrick, 185.
Cf. Martial, 7.96.5, quid species, quid lingua mihi quid profuit aetas; Landor, Rose Aylmer, 'Ah! what avails the sceptred race,| Ah! what the form divine!'
facundia: the lawyer's eloquence (Epist. 1.5.15) avails nothing at that bar. --pietas: cf. on 2.14.2; 1.24.11.
Hippolytus was the son of Theseus. His death was caused by the fury of a woman scorned,--his step-mother Phaedra, who, when repulsed, denounced him to his father. During his life he had been devoted to the service of Diana. --neque . . . liberat: this is the form of the myth in the Hippolytus of Euripides. In the legend followed by Vergil (Aen. 7.761 sqq.), Ovid (Met. 15.533 sqq.), and Browning (in Artemis Prologuizes), Diana restores him to life, and transfers him, under the name of Virbius, to her grove at Aricia.
valet: cf. on 1.34.12; 3.25.15.
Pirithoo: cf. on 3.4.80. Theseus, who shared P.'s punishment, was freed by Hercules, but could not free his friend. There were other versions of the legend. Cf. Frazer, Paus. 5. 381. Cf. Chaucer, Knightes Tale, 'So well they loved as olde bokes sain | That when the one was dead, sothely to tell | His felawe went and sought him down in hell.' These mythological examples merely exemplify the general truth, non te restituet.